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10 examples of alien weather that will surprise you
Weather in the world can be quite devastating, but for the most part, if you do not take quite rare fire tornado from heaven just dripping. If you want to experience a truly violent weather, this planet need to fly, run away, skedaddle. There, beyond our solar system, such planets revolve, near which our weather may seem easy summer breeze.
Located 63 light years from Earth, the planet HD 189733b – the usual “hot Jupiters.” It is 13% more massive than Jupiter but is 30 times closer to its star than the Earth – the Sun. It is closest to our solar system planet of this type, however, scientists were able to find out quite a lot of information about it.
The surface temperature of the planet – 980 degrees Celsius, winds rush with speed 6400 km / h Extreme temperature means that the planet’s atmosphere to evaporate, causing the planet loses up to 600 million kilogram per second.
Although the planet is relatively close to us by galactic standards, needed a clever trick. The scientists used the Hubble Telescope to catch the light when the planet was near the star, and then again when she passed her. Difference allowed them to figure out the color of the planet, which was “azure”.
As our blue sky, HD 189733b gets its color from light scattering in the atmosphere. Nevertheless, it is not called this shade air. Light is scattered by particles of silicate. Surface completely covered with showers, but instead of water in the sky moving pieces of glass at a speed five times the speed of sound.
Green crystal rain
Rain is not only on the planets. Contender for the most beautiful rain in the galaxy is called a protostar HOPS-68, young sunlike stars 1350 light years from Earth. Around it is still spinning cloud of dust, but along with it rotate and tiny fragments of olivine green crystal used to make jewelry, the rain which falls on the star.
As many gemstones olivine formed at very high temperatures. Cloud around HOPS-68 rather cold, about -170 degrees Celsius. Astronomers believe that olivine formed around the star, but was thrown out after the gas jets. Now he bombards young star rain falling “like glitter”, according to scientists.
Discovery made by the Spitzer Space Telescope, and helps solve the mystery in our own solar system. These crystals were recently discovered on one of the peripheral comets. These data suggest that the gems could be formed in the early stages of life in our solar system and comets frozen after having been thrown out of the center.
Clouds of mercury
Alpha Andromeda, also known as Alferatz or Sirr, – the brightest star in the constellation Andromeda. She also has another record – this is the first in the history of the star, which has found weather system.
Opening began with a riddle. Alpha Andromedae was one of the first star, the surface of which can be studied in detail, and found that it has sections of mercury, whose composition varies with time. In fact, the concentration of mercury in different sections of the difference was ten thousand times.
In our sun spots and changes in the composition are a result of magnetism. Alpha Andromedae has no magnetic field, so you need another explanation. Astronomers observed the star for seven years and found that the picture of concentration shifts over time. Dynamics corresponds to weather patterns on Earth and on planets like Jupiter.
Offset means that the clouds move over the surface of mercury star. However, the resolution of this puzzle has given rise to another. It seems that the mercury – the only star element capable of forming clouds. Why do so – no one knows.
Extreme heat wave
HD 80606b – another “hot Jupiters”, though four times the mass of Jupiter. Planet is particularly interesting because it has been particularly eccentric orbit. Its orbit around the star in 111.4 Earth days goes by 0.88 distance from the Sun to the Earth. The closest relative to the star 30 times closer and only lasts a few hours. A team from the Geneva Observatory HD 80606b investigated and determined that as we approach the nearest point of an outside observer could see how the brightness of the planet grows to 825 times.
Result of additional radiation is that the planet’s temperature is doubled in just six hours, from 527 to 1227 degrees Celsius. This is the biggest “swing” temperature ever observed on the planet. Yet nearly a thousandfold increase in sunlight does not fully explain the process – in the world to double the temperature, it would take more than six hours.
Scientists have found that sudden flash of radiation causes something like an explosion in a part of the atmosphere, which faces the star. It causes wind speeds of 17,700 km / h, sweeping over the surface of the planet. Then the rotation of the planet causes the giant swirling storm that carry heat in all directions.
Brown dwarfs are formed in the same way as the other stars, but they lack the mass to ignite. Therefore, they are relatively cool – some even cooler than the human body. Low temperature of brown dwarfs is that they are not particularly bright light, so they are often difficult to detect. People built incredible telescopes and with their help have created a weather map a brown dwarf.
Hubble and Spitzer telescopes watched the brown dwarf 2MASSJ22282889-431026, or 2M2228, if shorter, which is 39.1 light years from us. Scientists have discovered changes in brightness every 90 minutes, rotating dwarf. Telescopes possible to observe different wavelengths, which showed that the timing of these changes will vary depending on whether the frequency of the infrared spectrum they are responsible.
These differences are the result of the movement of clouds on the surface in the direction of storms dwarf the size of Earth. Dwarf surface temperature – 600-700 degrees Celsius, and the clouds are made of very exotic materials, including sand and drops of molten iron.
Storm of hail
NGC 1333-IRAS 48 – a “child” of the solar system. Its central star is still a cocoon of gas and dust. In the center of this cocoon, rotating around a star is more dense disk of material that is likely to eventually form planets. This central disc experiencing what could be described as a storm of hail. Water, which is five times could fill Earth’s oceans, rain poured on the central disk.
It is warmer than the surrounding cloud material, and when chunks of ice clouds reach, they evaporate. This causes the water to glow with infrared light that Spitzer helped catch her in focus.
We’ve still got a bit of knowledge about how planetary systems are formed. This “steam” phase does not last long, but the presence of water allows scientists to calculate the size of the disk, its density and temperature. Himself pairs eventually freeze and may become a comet.
You do not need to look too far to find unusual weather on the star. In fact, our Sun – House for magnetic tornadoes. One of them was five times larger than Earth – and if it appeared on the surface of the Earth, it would have gone halfway to the moon. These tornadoes consist of superheated gas and plasma in two million degrees Celsius. Winds in a tornado scurry at 300 000 kilometers per hour.
First tornado was filmed in 2011 Solar Dynamics Observatory at NASA. Others, too, were in the frame – and they appear in front of coronal mass ejections. KVM – It’s a blast of plasma and radiation, which shoots the sun , and that, in turn, are associated with sunspots. Figuring out how all these magnetic phenomena are combined with each other – a real puzzle to try to solve supercomputers NASA.
Although not all of the magnetic tornadoes reach serious height, about 11,000 such constantly wanders on the surface of the Sun. These small and gustonaselyayuschie Sun tornadoes were discovered only in 2012. They may be part of the reason that the solar corona is much hotter than its photosphere, despite the fact that is further from the center. This is an old riddle.
Saturn and Jupiter
The most famous weather phenomenon in our solar system – is Jupiter’s Great Red Spot, a giant storm seen in the first half of the 17th century. Measurements at the end of the 19th century showed that its width – about 40,000 kilometers. By the time when the probe “Voyager” flew past the spot (in the late ’70s), the storm has decreased by half. In 2014, Hubble measured the storm and showed that about 16 500 kilometers across. In 1995, Hubble showed 20,950 kilometers.
All these figures indicate that the spot is not only reduced – this reduction is increasingly rapidly. We can not explain the accelerated reduction, but scientists believe that the cause may be a small vortices that impede the internal dynamics of the storm. Probe “Juno» (Juno) to reach Jupiter in July 2016, it may give some answers.
Jupiter – is not the only gas giant with massive storms. In December 2010, the probe “Cassini” began monitoring newly formed lightning storms on Saturn. The storm traveled west, leaving vortices on its way. For 201 days, he traveled all over the planet and caught himself. And when the waves touched, the storm was gone.
Usual weather on Venus is just awful. Thick atmosphere of the planet makes it the hottest planet in our solar system. Cloud layer 20 kilometers thick rain watering the ground of pure sulfuric acid. Raindrops evaporate before fall to the ground.
On top of that there is a giant cosmic explosions. In fact, giant cosmic explosions. They are known as “hot flow anomalies” and called the solar wind that flows around Venus. However, the solar wind is not always blowing in one direction. Pockets with plasma can accumulate where the wind meets the boundary of the atmosphere of Venus, and they can reach the size of the planet itself.
Weather in space
Bad weather is not only the stars and planets – in the cosmos can also be. Coronal mass ejections and solar flares produce wind of charged particles. When they get to Earth, they cause the famous Northern Lights. They can also cause problems with the electronics, especially satellites. Since 2014 the British Meteorological Office broadcasts 24-hour forecast space weather.
While Sun casts potentially damaging winds in our direction, it also protects us from a much larger storm. Last 45,000 years of the solar system travels through a cloud of interstellar gas about 30 light-years across. Sun’s magnetic field, or heliosphere, a bubble forms, the same as the Earth’s magnetosphere, which protects us from solar wind. Recent observations indicate that this storm is much more turbulent than we expected. Possible reason for this is that we can be close to the boundary of the cloud – even within a thousand years of going through it.
But the most powerful weather phenomenon in space – is, of course, galactic winds. These winds are fed by the formation and destruction of stars and exploding hot gas and dust in the scale of galaxies. They can push the material to hundreds of thousands of light-years away and completely avoid the gravitational attraction of galaxies. They change the rate of formation of stars and galaxies change the disk structure.
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Tags: Weather , Saturn , solar system , Jupiter .
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