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10 great inventions of Leonardo da Vinci
10 great inventions of Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci, perhaps, was the greatest inventor in history, but in his time were so weak technology, which outlines all of the genius remained, at best, on paper. Da Vinci drew sketches and diagrams of their devices and save notes. But either he has no desire to make them a reality, or do not have the funds. As a result, during the life of da Vinci almost none of his inventions did not see the light. And learn about the works of genius inventor until his death, as he had never hated my notes for public discussion.
And it’s incredibly sad, because da Vinci design skills are far ahead of their time. If they were implemented in the real inventions, who knows, may be a revolution in the world of technology would happen much earlier. On the other hand, many of da Vinci’s sketches can not be realized with the help of tools 15-16 century. But in the 21st century, many engineers are happy to take over da Vinci projects and found that they really work. And would work, whether da Vinci a little more daring and a little ingenuity.
Let’s look at da Vinci inventions eyes everyman twenty-first century.
Not impressed? Well, the bearing may not be the coolest, which can afford the inventor, but a lot of contemporary art works by the bearings. Ball bearings allow the rotating drive shafts, push products in the store or at the factory, is the basis of almost any moving mechanism. Smooth balls placed between two moving surfaces, virtually eliminating friction. The idea, according to many, was born back in the time of the Roman Empire, but historians believe that it was in da Vinci’s notebooks were first drafts bearing. Many of the devices invented by a genius, would not work without bearings. But as is the case with many other concepts of the inventor, the bearing had to reinvent someone else.
The speed with which the body falls, depends on two factors: the force of gravity, which pulls down the resistance of the atmosphere in which it falls. In the absence of the atmosphere falling body will simply accelerate to high speed, until he falls to the surface, the air slows the fall as long as the body reaches the so-called terminal velocity. Different objects have different speed limit. A person falling into the Earth’s atmosphere – paratrooper, for example – this speed is approximately 193.1 km / h Slowly, yes? Maybe so, but it’s enough to make a man fell from a plane into a cake after it hit the surface of the earth. It may just save a parachute.
Da Vinci, being fascinated by the idea of a flying man, planned his parachute as a means to drift through the air. Its pyramidal structure was draped cloth. Da Vinci wrote in his notes, such a device would allow a person to “fall from any height without injury or damage.” Twenty-first century naturalists who have realized the idea da Vinci recognized that it works exactly as he had predicted.
Da Vinci inspired bird. He watched them, painted them, and thought about creating your own aerial vehicles. One result of this hobby became an ornithopter, a device invented by da Vinci, which in theory could lift man into the air like a bird. While da Vinci’s parachute would allow a person to jump off a cliff and survive, ornithopter would allow him to float in the air above the ground.
On paper, the ornithopter is more like a bird (or bat) than modern aircraft. His wings will start working after the pilot turn the crank. This invention demonstrates a deep understanding of aerodynamics da Vinci. Modern attempts to reproduce the ornithopter shown that he really could fly – if it was raised in the air. Build aerial vehicles, apply the weak muscles of man, it would be more difficult.
Parachute and ornithopter were the only two of the flying machine, described da Vinci in his notebooks. Among others, and was a glider and vertoletopodobnoe aerial vehicles, which we might talk later.
Gun da Vinci and the “33-barrel organ” was not a machine gun in the modern view. He could quickly produce a bullet from one barrel. But could give shots at short intervals, and if built, would effectively mowed advancing infantry.
The mechanism of this gun is simple. Da Vinci suggested to collect 11 muskets on a rectangular board, and then add three of these boards in the triangle. Place the shaft in the middle, it was possible to rotate the whole contraption so that one set of 11 guns fired, while two other cool down and recharge. After that, the whole mechanism was turning and gave another volley.
Although da Vinci always said in his notebooks that he hated war and condemns killing machines, he needed money, and he could easily persuade wealthy patrons that such machines will help them defeat their enemies. Perhaps it’s for the best that no killing machine, conceived da Vinci, was never built.
Living in the late 15th century Venice, da Vinci developed the idea to repel the invasion of vessels. It was enough to send men to the bottom of the harbor in a diving suit, and then they would just dissected bottoms of ships, like tin cans. This idea does not impress you, because now its implementation seems simple enough. But in times of Da Vinci it was unheard of. Da Vinci divers to breathe underwater using a bell with air, wear a mask with glass openings, through which could be seen under the water. In another embodiment of the concept divers could breathe with wine bottles filled with air. In both cases, the men would wear with a bottle, which pissed, so they could stay under water for a long time. Plan da Vinci was not only realize – it was practical!
These immersion suits were created in reality, but the invaders, against which they were applied successfully vanquished the Venetian fleet before needed underwater sabotage.
Бронированный танк да Винчи
Working at the Duke of Milan, Ludovico Sforza, da Vinci proposed what could be the crown of his creation in the field of military vehicles: armored tank. With the assistance of eight strong men, armored tank was like a turtle, which bristled 36 guns from all sides. It was equipped with a system of gears that made up the sequence. Eight people were protected from the outer shell of the battle, so they could deliver the foot of the “hedgehog” right in the thick of battle without being wounded. Firing in all directions from the armored tank guns could be deadly to a rival squad.
Scheme armored tank in notes da Vinci has a funny flaw: the wheels to move forward spinning in the opposite direction from the rear wheels. Constructed in this way, the tank could not move. Da Vinci was too smart to allow such a mistake, so historians have cited several reasons why the inventor made a mistake deliberately. Perhaps he really did not want this car was built. Another option – he was afraid that the scheme will fall into the hands of enemies, and made a mistake, make sure that nobody else will be able to build a tank.
Самоходная тележка да Винчи
Self-propelled trolley da Vinci comes to the role of the first car in history. Moreover, since she did not have the driver, it can be considered as the first robotic vehicles in history.
Drawings made by da Vinci, did not fully reveal the inner mechanism, so modern engineers had to guess, what makes the truck go forward. Best guess was a spring mechanism like the one used in watches. Springs hidden in the shape of a drum corps and could wind up hand. And while the spring unwinds, the cart goes forward, like clockwork toy. Steering wheel can be programmed with a number of units in the chain of transmission, although the fact that the truck could only rotate to the right, essentially would limit its usefulness.
Leonardo apparently thought his truck a bit of toys, but there is no doubt that if it was built, soon followed by a more useful improvements.
Cities of the Future
Мост да Винчи
Most of Leonardo da Vinci.
When Leonardo was living in Milan around 1400, Europe stormed the black plague. The city suffered much more than rural, and da Vinci suggested that the city has something special that makes them vulnerable to disease. This idea is remarkably close to the present, given that the microbial theory of disease was developed only in the early 20th century. Da Vinci conceived to develop their own plan: the city, originally designed and built from the ground up to be sanitary and life fit.
The result was a triumph of urban planning, which was never built. “The Ideal City” da Vinci has been divided into several levels, each of which was minimal sanitation, and a network of channels contributed to the rapid disposal of waste. Water had to ensure the building by a hydraulic system that prefigured modern. Resources necessary to create such a city, beyond the resources available to the da Vinci, and he could not find a benefactor willing to shell out the money for the construction of a city.
Вертолет да Винчи
The propeller da Vinci, perhaps it is the coolest of the project, which were found in his notebooks. He would work on the principle of the modern helicopter. Flying machine looked like a great spinner. “Blades” helicopter were made of linen. If they roll out fast enough, they could create thrust, aerodynamic phenomenon that allows planes and helicopters fly. The air would create pressure for each of the blades, thus raising the flying machine in the sky.
The idea, at least, has been. Could this screw to fly? Hardly. But it would be cool.
Анатомия по да Винчи
Leonardo da Vinci studied human anatomy thoroughly.
If self-propelled trolley da Vinci was the first working draft of robotic vehicles, robot knight could become the first humanoid robot, C-3PO 15th century. Da Vinci carefully studied the anatomy of the human body and dismembered corpses for hours to figure out how it works. He realized that the muscles are driven by bones. After that, he decided that the same principle could be the basis machine. Unlike most of the inventions da Vinci, Leonardo seems to have actually built a robot knight, but he was mainly used for entertainment at parties generous patron of genius, Ludovico Sforza. Of course, the robot is much different from today’s cyborgs .
The Da Vinci robot is not preserved, and no one really knows what he was capable of. But apparently, he walked, sat and worked even jaws. In his work, we used a system of pulleys and gears. In 2002, the robotics expert Mark Roskheym took workbooks da Vinci to build a working model of the robot of the 15th century. As a result, some of the ideas Roskheym borrowed to create a planetary robotic scouts who will use NASA .
As you can see, half a century of space research projects of Leonardo da Vinci, finally came out in the open space.
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