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10 interpretations of quantum mechanics
For many years have been developed dozens of interpretations of quantum mechanics. Most of them are trying to solve, what happens when a quantum system made observation or measurement. Mathematical formula, known as the wave function (or state vector) describes the state of the system, which is measured, and numerous opportunities to “collapse” into one result. Quantum “interpretation” of trying to explain why there is a collapse occurs and whether it all. Some interpretations are beginning to question whether the wave function is physically real or purely mathematical remains something.
Warning: scraps below do not reflect all the nuances of the various interpretations that have often changed over time, or even supporters of the authors. We just go over them. Wrote cosmologist Max Tegmark, “there is not even a consensus on what to call the interpretation.”
10. Bohm Mechanics (David Bohm)
She was not very fond of, but she has a lot of fans and it deserves attention. Developed in the 1950s by Bohm, who based his early views of Louis de Broglie, Bohm mechanics describes the flight of the particles controlled “pilot waves”. These waves are said particles to move. It is assumed that this approach returns physics to determinism, ignoring the probability that condemned Einstein saying ” God does not play dice . ” Since the experiment eliminates the “hidden variables” in favor of determinism, Bohm mechanics requires some action at a distance (or non-locality). Einstein did not like it at all. Also difficult to see how Bohm mechanics can predict any experimental difference between the predictions of standard quantum mechanics. Shortly before his death, Einstein said that the Bohm interpretation is not impressed. “Too cheap, as for me,” – wrote in a letter to Einstein physicist Max Born.
9. Interpretation of stochastic evolution
This interpretation may be called strictly interpretation of quantum mechanics can not, because it changes the math. In ordinary quantum mechanics, the wave function “evolving” changes over time in a predictable manner. In other words, the chances of the different results may vary, and you can predict how they will change until you make the measurement. But some physicists have assumed for years that evolution itself may change randomly (or stochastic) so as to cause its own collapse. It is assumed that this collapse occurs very rapidly for large (macroscopic) objects and slow for subatomic particles. Nobel laureate Steven Weinberg intently studying this option.
8. Quantum bayesianstvo (Christopher Fuchs, Carlton Caves, Rüdiger Schack)
This interpretation, sometimes called “kbizm» (QBism), takes into account the statistical surveys Bayes that reflect the personality factor in finding results – personal assumptions. From this perspective, the wave function – “personal” representing the measurement of individual knowledge of the system state that can be used to predict its future.
7. Many-worlds interpretation (Hugh Everett III)
Ignored over the years since its inception in 1957, the many-worlds interpretation gained popularity in the last ten years. Interpretation postulates that every time there is a measure, all possible outcomes occur in different branches of reality, creating a plurality of parallel universes. In fact, Everett thought of her as an observer at the cleavage clones who see different versions of measurements. In any case, this is strange.
6. Cosmological interpretation (Anthony Aguirre and Max Tegmark)
Relatively new. After only appeared in 2010. In principle, Aguirre and Tegmark argue that if the universe is infinite, then we have many-worlds interpretation, as will an infinite number of parallel universes, which can happen all the possible results of measurements of quantum-mechanical processes. Aguirre and Tegmark calculated that the results will appear in the same proportions in which the possibility of predicted calculated in the framework of quantum mathematics. Thus, the “wave function describes the actual spatial collection of identical quantum systems, and quantum uncertainty due to the inability of the observer to identify themselves in this collection.”
5. The Copenhagen Interpretation
Copenhagen interpretation was formulated by Niels Bohr in the late 1920s, at the dawn of quantum mechanics (and later embellished by Werner Heisenberg). Bohr believed that the measurements give results that can only be described in ordinary language of classical physics, so there’s no interest in what happens in a kind of invisible “quantum” field. You need to adjust the experimental setup to ask a question about the nature of the universe, and the question that you ask, the answer implies that you will receive. This view includes the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which limits not measurement, and the nature of reality – the position of a particle at the same time and its performance did not exist when the measurement takes place. Measurement selects one of the many features (or potential realities on Heisenberg). Bohr explained the alleged paradoxes, like the behavior of a particle, as waves and waves as particles, mutually exclusive, but “complementary” aspects of nature.
4. Serial stories (Robert Griffiths)
Griffith first proposed in 1984, the interpretation of serial stories interprets classical physics as an approximation to quantum mechanics and quantum mathematics can calculate the probability of large-scale phenomena as well as the subatomic. Probabilities do not apply to the measurement results, and the physical state of the system. Griffiths especially distinguishes the “incompatibility” of the set of possible realities in quantum physics. You can take a picture of the mountain from different sides, he said, but the pictures should be combined to add up the whole picture of the real mountain. In quantum physics, you can choose what you measure (say, particle velocity or position), but you can not combine the two measurements to create a coherent picture of the particle before the measurement. Prior to measuring your real position and momentum do not exist. Similarly, there is no real physical state in which Schrödinger’s cat is both alive and dead. The fact that the wave function can describe this condition simply means that the wave function – a mathematical construct to calculate the probabilities of the sequence of events or stories. In real life, each sequence of events to tell a coherent story.
3. Quantum Darwinism (Wojciech Zurek)
Similar in some details on the serial stories, quantum Darwinism Zurek emphasizes the role of decoherence. This process, wherein several possible quantum realities eliminated when the system interacts with its environment. As soon as the molecules or photons bounce off the object, their trajectories recorded position of the object, and very soon will be only one path related to the information in the environment. This kind of natural interaction produce a kind of “natural selection” of properties that are stored in an environment of multiple copies available to observers. Thus, observers can agree on the specific location of macroscopic objects, instead of multiple locations simultaneously.
2. Decoherence stories (Murray Gell-Mann and James Hartle)
A variety of serial stories Griffiths became interpretation Gell-Mann and Hartle (1989), emphasizing the decoherence as Zurek with quantum Darwinism. But Gell-Mann and Hartle argue that the entire universe can be seen as a quantum system without external environment. Thus, decoherence happens inside, producing what they called “quasiclassical domains” – sets of consecutive stories that can not be distinguished on the background of coarse grain induced decoherence.
1. Interpretation Thomas Siegfried (Sciencenews.org)
He believes that his interpretation is called hermeneutic. Work is still going. The scientist believes that instead of making the interpretation of quantum mechanics, it will interpret the interpretations that need to be interpreted.
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