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10 most bizarre structures of the modern world
10 most bizarre structures of the modern world
What was common among the seven wonders of the world in ancient times? Most of these facilities included in the “short-list”, due to its scale, which caused trepidation among travelers and scientists. For example, the Colossus of Rhodes stood at 33.5 meters above the Mediterranean Sea until the earthquake did not put a bronze giant to its knees. The largest of the three pyramids of Giza – Pyramid of Cheops – four thousand years was the tallest building in the world.
Modern engineers continue to raise interest rates when it comes to building something big. We even wrote recently about how high you can do to build a skyscraper, and found that hoo. Just look at the dam Three Gorges, monstrous hydroelectric plant, which is on the Yangtze River in China, or the Burj Khalifa, the tallest skyscraper in the world, crowning a Dubai.
Others simply try to shock the audience . Designers and avant-garde architects create surreal structures that do not cause anything but a strange feeling light madness. The final products do not seem huge, but shocking twists, defying the force of gravity also cause shouts of “whoa-whoa-whoa.”
Together with its subsidiary Discovery resource we picked ten wonders of modern architecture and engineering incarnations for you. Let’s start with the tower, which became praprapravnukom Leaning Tower.
Most engineers do not want to be leaning skyscrapers. On the contrary, the building that begins to bend immediately after construction, almost always indicates the shoals in the project. Leaning Tower of Pisa, for example, was built on unstable ground weak, resulting in tilted to one side. Angle is four degrees relative to the center.
Say “hi” crazy engineers who decided to build the same curves of the building. Here, for example, Capital Gate, 35-story skyscraper located on the island of Abu Dhabi, UAE. According to the project, the structure tilts 18 degrees – which is more than four times the “Pisa” tilt. To implement his plan, engineers drove 490 piles 30 meters long in the ground and built a strong foundation of a dense grid of reinforcing steel. Then built “pre-curved core” – concrete spine with signs of scoliosis. Well, as the core of a crooked, the whole building crooked too. Workers had to cut the diamond panels, because each of them was under the unique angle.
In 2010, Guinness World Records has designated as Capital Gate «Farthest Man-made Leaning Building», which can be translated literally as “the leaning tower created by human hands.” But the only thing: unlike the Tower of Pisa, this building has a usable area, which housed offices and exclusive five star hotel Hyatt.
To join the Norwegian city Laerdal and Aurland road engineers had to solve a small problem: the mountains and Hornsnipa Yeronnosi. Instead of trying to get around the mountain, the engineers decided to drill them through. The result is a tunnel Laerdalsky (Laerdal Tunnel), which passes through solid gneiss rock for 24 kilometers and earning it the title of the longest road tunnel in the world.
Drill a structure – not the biggest problem. Designers also had to make sure that motorists can make such a long underground passage without being “road hypnosis”. To solve this problem, the Norwegian Public Roads Administration has taken a team of psychologists who had the most to revive the road. Recommended to include blue lights and neat curves to take drivers. It was also decided that the tunnel is divided into four sections that would dilute the monotony. Twenty-four kilometers under the arch of rock straight it will not huhry-muhry here and “get stuck” can be, I’m sorry too for the vernacular.
Motorists entering the tunnel Laerdalsky today may not notice these improvements design, but they certainly appreciate them as well go on the other side after a 20-minute ride to the center of the mountain.
Die Gläserne Manufaktur
When most people think about the plant, it seems a huge box, hung with smokestacks. In 2001, Volkswagen redefined the concept of automotive and built Die Gläserne Manufaktur – «factory glass” – to build a luxury sedan Phaeton. The building is located right in the center of Dresden German challenging urban planners, who said that the production can not exist side by side with urban culture and life.
On the other hand, the “glass factory” is not so typical manufacturing plant. You will not find any chimneys or landmark noise, no toxic waste. Factory walls contain 26,942 square meters of glass, so people can watch what’s going on inside. Without doubt, they are allowed to drool looking at Canadian maple floors, or wonder why the front lobby looks like Opera. But when you notice a glimpse of the different parts of Phaeton, conveyor belts and assembly robots waiting with 227 workers, no doubt that this car plant remains.
Perhaps so will look all the factories of the future.
Parking Central Library Kansas City
If you tried to read “To Kill a Mockingbird” on the bookshelf in the Central Library Kansas City, you would be disappointed at the same time and would have remained enthusiastic. First, the spine of the book is in the size of 7.6 meters by 2.7 meters. Secondly, oversized spine is hiding a real book. Along with 21 other “masterpieces of literature,” it forms a false shelter garage library. Building designers decided not to hide behind the main building garage, and ordinary concrete box also not approached them. Parking earned in 2004.
The project team also carefully considered public. Residents of Kansas City offered what books leave the main bookshelf, so librarians have narrowed the list down to 22 works of fiction and nonfiction and poetry, including a two-volume history of Kansas City. Along with Harper Lee’s masterpiece, you will find a “Catch-22” by Joseph Heller, “Fahrenheit 451” by Ray Bredberri, “Silent Spring,” Rachel Carson, “The Invisible Man” by Ralph Ellison, “A Tale of Two Cities” by Charles Dickens and ” Charlotte’s Web “by EB White. Now they are all giants of literature naturally.
Zenith giant telescope
Optical telescopes, which must turn our gaze at the stars, nebulae and exoplanets, require the same engineer’s skill as dams, tunnels and bridges. For example, the main mirror of the telescope Subaru, which is located on the plateau of Mauna Kea in Hawaii, 8.2 meters in diameter and weighs over 25 tons. Structure that supports the optics and its surrounding system will bypass any competitive building in complexity.
One of the biggest problems with traditional telescopes is the delivery of the mirror on top of the mountain without damage. After this, astronomers have to constantly adjust the system taking into account the deformation caused by the force of gravity, humidity and other environmental conditions. Zhidkozerkalnye telescopes as Large Zenith Telescope at the University of British Columbia, solve this problem. LZT liquid mercury uses basically the mirror as it can be poured in place and maintain the ideal parabolic form at as the telescope is rotated at a constant speed. This telescope reflects 75% of incoming light and stars worth five times cheaper optical telescope.
LZT today holds the record as the largest telescope mercurial world, but in India, Belgium and Canada have teamed up to create an even larger model – International zhidkozerkalny telescope that will operate at peak Devastal in northern India.
Over the past ten years, the city of Dubai has experienced phenomenal growth, focusing mostly on 60 kilometers from the coast, bordering the Persian Gulf. Unfortunately, high-rise apartments, skyscrapers and hotels stand shoulder to shoulder on the shore, leaving no room for development. To solve this little problem, Nakheel Properties, a government-backed company, has decided to extend the Dubai coastline with three artificial landmasses called the Palm Islands (Palm Island).
How would you implement such a feat? Have poured tons of sand and stone, would not yet formed an artificial island in the ocean? Workers dragged more than 3 billion cubic meters of sand to create the Palm Jumeirah, the first of the three islands. But they do not just pour the material to the mound. They created an archipelago in the shape of palm trees with a trunk 2 kilometers and a crown of 16 leaves, surrounded by a crescent. GPS data to help them understand that the structure retained its symmetry during the construction period.
In 2013, Palm Jumeirah is the largest man-made island in the world – at least until his companions had not yet risen from the sea. Upon completion, Palm Deira will be more reclaimed from the Persian Gulf about 47 square kilometers.
Melbourne Rectangular Stadium (AAMI Park)
The title says that in front of us completely boring structure. What can be interesting in a rectangular stadium? However, if you look at a bird’s eye on the AAMI Park, as it is called in Australia, you will understand why the project was designated as a “new generation of sports stadiums.” The main distinguishing feature – is the roof, which draws inspiration from the geodesic domes American engineer R. Buckminster Fuller. To build a datum, you collect together polygons forming a sphere. As a result, the structure becomes strong, but uses much less material than conventional construction methods.
Roof AAMI Park contains several geodesic domes that are packaged together as a soap bubble with a complex surface. In this stadium uses 50% less steel than a conventional cantilevered construction. It also contains a significant amount of recycled building material collects rainwater from the roof, and minimizes power consumption. At the opening in May 2010, the stadium has collected a number of awards in the field of architectural innovation, engineering and ecology. But environmentalists are not particularly happy – after 30,000 spectators can be very quiet.
Globe Ericsson (Ericsson Globe), Sports Arena in Stockholm also collected a number of awards. Being 110 meters in diameter, 85 meters in height and 600 000 cubic meters in volume, it is the world’s largest spherical structure. And most surprisingly, for its construction took not much time. Workers began to dig 10 September 1986 and the building was opened on 19 February 1989. The entire construction process took only 2.5 years.
Size Globe Eriksson makes it ideal not only for hockey and entertainment. It also plays an important role in the world’s largest educational model. Yes, you heard right. Department of Astronomy at the University of Stockholm decided to depict the correct scale of our planetary system using structures scattered across the Swedish countryside. Globe an analogue sun, setting scale model, which should be in proportion 1:20000000. All the inner planets are within the city of Stockholm, but go outside the far north. For example, Neptune is in Soderhemne, 246 kilometers from the Globe, and Pluto is in Delsbo, generally for 300 kilometers. Each model has a receiving institution, so tourists can travel on the planet, without getting lost in space.
Headquarters of China Central Television
At first glance, the headquarters of China Central Television (CCTV) looks like something from the category of Escher painting. But this is not a fantastic image of endless stairs and loops. The building opened in 2012, after 10 years of design, development and disaster almost happened. Fire in the building next door to the CCTV project brought nearly derailed. Today, an interesting structure can be seen from any place in Beijing.
As we have noted, to build more – not the only way to impress engineers. Rolling Bridge, allowing pedestrians to walk on the London Canal Grand Union, only 11.8 meters in length. But its innovative design more than makes up for its small size. The bridge consists of eight sections held together wood and steel being fully extended and lies flat. Then, under the action of hydraulic pistons, sections can stretch out and curl into themselves. While the boat safely pass through the canal, the bridge is located on the shore as a small sculpture.
Rolling Bridge is the brainchild of Thomas Heatherwick, who designed and other architectural absurdity. For example, a giant pot that burned at the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games 2012 in London and sculpture star. In 2008, Manchester asked Heatherwick carry «B of the Bang». But here’s Rolling Bridge all fond. And even received the award in 2005.
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