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10 theoretical particle that may explain all
For centuries, mankind has to bite into the granite of science, trying to figure out the exact composition of the universe. The ancient Greeks first to suggest the existence of atoms, which, in their opinion, were the smallest particles – “building blocks” of all things. Over 1500 years that was all we knew about the matter. In 1897, the discovery of the electron destroyed the scientific world to the ruins. It turned out that similarly, as comprised of atoms, molecules, atoms consist of components.
And the deeper we looked, the more answers seemed to flow away through our fingers. Even protons and neutrons – the building blocks of atoms – are made of even smaller particles – quarks. Each discovery raises more questions. Comprising whether time and space from placers of tiny particles, which even you can not see? Possible. Before you ten theoretical particle that could explain everything. If we find them.
Let’s start with something close to what we already know – quarks. There are six types of quarks. “Upper” and “lower” quarks are more common, they consist of protons and neutrons. “Strange” quarks, on the other hand, is not so common. When strange quarks together with the top and bottom quarks in equal amounts, they create a particle called “strangelets” (from “strange” and “droplet”). Strangelets – is the finest fragments of which is strange matter.
According to the theory of strange matter, strangelets are formed in nature when a massive neutron star – heavy collapsing star – gives so much pressure that the electrons and protons in the nucleus merge and then collapse further into a sort of dense quark bubble, which we call the strange matter. And although large strangelets can theoretically exist outside the centers of stars with high blood pressure, most likely they sailed from such stars in other solar systems – including our own.
But then again, if they exist, large strangelets can turn an atom’s nucleus to another strangelets, if faced with it. Strangelets new face with other nuclei, causing a chain reaction until all matter in the world will not be converted into strange matter. In fact, such fears were being caused by the Large Hadron Collider, the representatives of which failed at the time to convince people of the artificiality of this fact. It is unlikely they could accidentally create strangelets that would destroy the planet.
Supersymmetry theory states that every particle in the universe has an opposite twin particle known as supersymmetric particle, or superpartner sparticles. Thus, each quark has a squark, which separates the first perfect symmetry. Each photon has a photino. And so on, until none of the 61 known elementary particles do not remain without attention. Well, if so many of them, why we did not find any?
There is a theory in physics of elementary particles heavier particles fall faster than lighter ones. If the image is heavy particle, it will break almost immediately after creation. Assuming that sparticles incredibly heavy, they must break down in the blink of an eye, while their super – particles that we see – live. This may explain why the universe observed a preponderance of dark matter – sparticles may contain dark matter and exist in the field, which for us is far and unobservable.
Matter is composed of particles – and just antimatter consists of antiparticles. In this sense there. Antiparticles have the same mass as the normal particles, but opposite charge and opposite angular momentum (spin). Looks like supersymmetry, but unlike particle antiparticle behave in the same way as particles and even participate in the creation antielementov like antihydrogen. In principle, there is any matter antimatter.
Anyway, should be found. This is the problem – there are a lot of matter and antimatter are not found anywhere else. Only created artificially. Outside the Large Hadron Collider free antimatter does not exist, even in theory.
According to the Big Bang theory was initially equal number of particles and antiparticles. All matter in the universe was created at the point of explosion. By default, all antimatter should have been created at the same time. Another theory is that in other parts of the universe dominated by antimatter. All that we see the most distant stars, are composed of matter. But our visible universe may be only a small portion of the universe, somewhere there may be entire star system of antimatter.
Currently antiparticles are a huge problem in modern theoretical physics of elementary particles. Another problem is gravity. Compared with other forces, such as electromagnetism, gravity – a very weak force. In addition, it works fine on a planetary level – by gravity easily observe other stars and planets, but at the molecular level it is almost impossible to get out there and it creates awkward things. In addition to everything else, have no gravity particles that carry it, like the photons that carry light.
And then there is the graviton. It is a theoretical particle that should fit into the same gravity model as any other observable effect. Because gravity has little attraction for each object, regardless of the distance, it must be massless. But this is not a problem – the photons no mass, and they are everywhere. We have gone so far that we can even determine the exact parameters to be met by the graviton, so if we find the particle – any particle – satisfying these parameters, we will graviton.
Find graviton is very important, because now general relativity and quantum physics are incompatible. However, at certain levels of energy, known as the Planck scale, gravity ceases to follow the rules of relativity and quantum rules to slides. Therefore, the problem of gravity may be the key to a unified theory.
There is another theoretical gravity particle, and it is beautiful little less than full. Gravifoton – a particle that is created when the gravitational field is shown in the fifth dimension. It originates from Kaluza – Klein, which proposes to merge electromagnetism and gravity into a single force, provided that the space-time there are more than five measurements. Gravifoton would have the characteristics of the graviton, but also took to the properties of the photon and created what physicists call a “fifth force” (But in general there are only four fundamental forces).
Other theories claim that could be gravifoton superpartner of, but they repelled and attracted to both. In theory, this could create anti-gravity effect. And it is only in the fifth dimension. Supergravity theory also postulates the existence gravifotonov, but proposes to expand the number of measurements to … eleven.
Of what are quarks? To begin with, let’s move on to the scale. In the nucleus of a gold atom semdesyat nine protons. Each proton consists of three quarks. Width of the core of an atom of gold – about eight femtometrov across. This eight millionths of a nanometer, and – a nanometer is one-billionth of a meter. Quarks are very small and preons, in this case, should be so negligible that they simply can not be measured by modern methods.
There are other words that are used to describe the theoretical building blocks of quarks, including primony, subkvarki, angioedema and Tweedle, but “preon” took best. And preons – a very important part of theoretical physics, because at the moment the fundamental particles are quarks. If it turns out that they are composed of other parts, it will open the way for thousands of new theories. For example, one theory is that elusive antimatter in the universe is actually contained in the preons, so all around has particles of antimatter, which is locked in this all. According to this theory, and you are a carrier of antimatter – just you can not see it, because that matter is composed of larger blocks.
Nothing comes close to a violation of the known laws of relativity closer than tachyon. This particle moves faster than light, if it existed, the fundamental speed limit would no longer be limited by the speed of light. In fact, it would mean that the speed of light would be the central point – and on both sides of this point will be the particles that move infinitely slowly (do not move at all) and tachyons, which can move infinitely fast.
Ironically, their attitude to the speed of light would be mirrored. Roughly speaking, when an ordinary particle is accelerated, its energy needs are increasing. To break through the barrier of the speed of light, you need an infinite amount of energy. In the case of tachyon slower it moves, the more energy required. When it slows down and approaches the speed of light from the other end, its energy requirements approaching infinity. But when the speed increases, and the need for energy decreases – he does not need any energy to move with infinite speed.
Think of it like a magnet – a magnet glued to the wall, and the other in your hand. When you touch the same poles of magnets, your magnet is repelled. The closer you get your magnet, the harder you push. Now imagine that on the other side of the wall there is another magnet that does the same thing. Magnet on the wall – the speed of light, and the other two magnet – it tachyons and ordinary particles. If there was even a tachyon, they will always be closed on the other side of the trap, which we ourselves can not ignore. Although technically they can be used to send messages to the past.
Almost all of the particles, which we were told are called point particles: quarks and photons exist as a single point – a little tiny flyspeck – with zero dimensions. String theory suggests that these elementary particles – not the point, and the strings, one-dimensional filament particles. At its core, string theory – it is a kind of “theory of everything” that wants to reconcile gravity and quantum physics. In string theory – a plurality of individual theories, and string theories themselves too much. From what we now know, gravity and quantum mechanics can not coexist in the same space physically – gravity does not work on the quantum level.
Thus, in a broad sense, string theory actually represents a quantum theory of gravity. For comparison, the strings can be replaced preons as building blocks for quarks, although at higher levels all remain the same. In string theory, the string can turn into anything, depending on the form in which the folds. If the string is left open, it becomes a photon. If the ends of a single string in the closed loop, it becomes a graviton. Roughly the same tree can be the whole shebang or flute.
As we have noted, a lot of string theories, and each predicts a different number of dimensions. Most of these theories states that there are ten or eleven dimensions and-boson string theory (or superstring theory) argues that measurement is not less than twenty-six. In these other dimensions gravity has an equal or greater force with respect to the other fundamental forces, which explains the weakness of gravity in our three spatial dimensions.
If you really want to get an explanation of gravity, you need to delve into the M-theory, or membrane theory. Membrane, or brane – a particle that can run on multiple dimensions. For example, the 0-brane – brane is a point that exists in zero dimensions as quark. 1-brane has one dimension – this string. 2-brane – dimensional membrane and so on. Multidimensional branes can have any size, that leads to the theory that our universe – is one big war with the four dimensions. This brane – our universe – just a piece of the multidimensional space.
As for gravity, our four-dimensional brane just can not contain it, so gravitational energy escapes into other branes, in multidimensional space; we just settle for what’s left, so gravity seems so weak compared to other forces.
Of course, it is easy to guess that there are many branes, moving through space – infinite branes through endless space. This gives birth to the multiverse theory and cyclic universe . According to the latter, the universe is subject to cycles: it expands because of the energy of the Big Bang, then gravity pulls everything in one spot. This contraction creates a new explosion, and so on to infinity.
Higgs boson was found March 14, 2013 at the Large Hadron Collider and after confirmed, and his discovery was awarded the Nobel Prize. Its existence was first predicted in the 60s. Is the particle that gives mass to other particles.
Higgs boson of Higgs field was born and has been proposed as an explanation for why some particles have mass which should actually do not possess. Higgs field – which no one has ever seen – must exist throughout the universe and provide the force necessary to particles acquire mass. Higgs boson must fill huge gaps in the Standard Model, which explains the very popular and almost all (except gravity, of course).
Higgs boson is important because it proves the existence of the Higgs field, and explains how the energy within the Higgs field can be manifested in the form of mass. Also, it is important because it creates a precedent. Before its discovery it was the usual theory. He had a mathematical model, the physical properties of the spin – everything. Just needed proof of its existence. And we found it.
And if we could do it once, who could argue that any of these particles can not be real? Tachyons, strangelets, gravitons – these particles can completely revolutionize our view of the world and bring us closer to understanding the fundamentals of the world in which we live.
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Tags: Quantum Mechanics , Physics , Particles .
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