A quantum computer based on a silicon chip: Myth or Reality?




A quantum computer based on a silicon chip: Myth or Reality?


Scientists from the University of New South Wales in Australia even more closer to a quantum computer, which works on the basis of silicon chips and the principles of quantum mechanics, the paradoxes which do not allow physicists to sleep and sometimes suggest the existence of God . They managed to prove the possibility of placing a quantum bit (qubit) in the nucleus of an atom of phosphorus, which is found in modern computer chips.

This discovery is important for two main reasons: first – generated qubit has a high stability and, more importantly, the second – this silicon was used instead of vacuum, therefore, it can be controlled as usual computer chip.

Recall that at the end of last year, the same group of scientists proved the possibility of placing a quantum bit in the electronic back to the phosphorus atom located inside the silicon transistor. Now they have done virtually the same thing, but with a core of phosphorus within the same silicon transistor.

As most every atom consists of protons, neutrons (except for hydrogen, which has no neutrons) and electrons. Protons have a positive charge, neutrons are neutral, and electrons have a negative charge. The number of protons in the nucleus determines which element we deal (one proton = hydrogen = six carbon oxygen = eight) determine the number of neutrons and the isotope (essentially whether it is stable or radioactive). The main thing is that the nature of the atomic nucleus (if we forget about nuclear fission and nuclear fusion reaction), which is a microscopic, dense and stable, almost unchanged. Another thing electrons, which often change the orbit jump between atoms and are completely separated from their atoms, turning the latter into positively charged particles – positive ions. According to scientists, the atomic nucleus in the one million times smaller than the atom itself, and in 2000 times less “friendly” than the orbital electrons. It’s the lyrics, back to the qubits.

Currently, there are several ways to create qubits, but the most common is the manipulation of electron spin (magnetism). By measuring or changing the spin state of the electron can be written or measure the state of the qubit. You can also measure the spin state of the nuclei of atoms, which have made the example of the nucleus of an atom of phosphorus, scientists from the University of New South Wales.

The advantage of using a core is that it is practically indifferent to external magnetic influence, however qubit is stable. There is only one drawback – is difficult to measure the magnetism of the fact that getting on exposure to 2000 times worse than the electron. To measure the value of a qubit researchers used nuclear magnetic resonance. This phenomenon is also used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to change the spin state of a single core. Determine the state of a qubit is very difficult because of the small magnetic field generated by the kernel, but scientists have succeeded by using a process called conversion back in charge.

With the new qubit scientists were able to significantly improve the reliability index reading information to 99.99 percent, while the rate of coherence was a record 60 milliseconds. For comparison, the coherence of the qubit created IBM, is 0.1 milliseconds.

Of course, nuclear qubits will not replace the electronic qubits back, but they can act as a kind of quantum memory, or help scientists create dvuhkubitnyh logic circuits. According to scientists, the first quantum computers will appear in the next ten years.
Previous researchers have found one of the appropriate solution to the question of World Hunger
Tags: Quantum mechanics , quantum computing , quantum computers , Qubit , Physics .


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