Alan Turing and philosophical problems of artificial intelligence




Can machines think? This is the question asked renowned British scientist Alan Turing (namesake notorious test) in his paper “Computing machinery and intelligence” in 1950. More precisely, he asked the question “Can machines do what we (as thinking beings) can do”. Back in the 40s, Turing was among the first began to explore the first issue of “smart cars”, or as they are called now – artificial intelligence. We will use both terms interchangeably.

In his paper, Turing gave several philosophical objections to the existence of artificial intelligence. Scientist brought them in opposition to his own opinion, he believed that by the end of the 20th century, the machine can pass the “Turing test” deceiving the interlocutor in no less than 30% of cases and by convincing him that a person, not a machine.

Vision scientist until it was true, but today we are closer than ever to the emergence of artificial intelligence.

For many years, science fiction authors have tried to find answers to these philosophical questions, each time differently representing the history of artificial intelligence. In this article we will discuss some problems of artificial intelligence, Turing suggested that, but that could partially solve science fiction.

First philosophical objection is theological argument. Suppose, “thinking is a function of the immortal soul. God has given an immortal soul to every man and woman, but not to animals and machines. Because no animal or machine can not think. ”

If so, then even if the machine will play all internal devices rational being, it can not achieve true intelligence without a soul. However, Turing argues that the error of this argument is that even if the “omnipotent entity” exists (deity or something else ), there is nothing difficult to conclude the soul in another capacity, such as in complex humanoid brain or equivalent machine. The scientist also said that the creation of a rather complex machine to accommodate the soul does not differ from the birth of the child, ie the creation of another individual to “almighty” implanted in his soul.

In the anime Ghost in the Shell discusses the relationship between humanity, technology and what it could mean for the person or having a reasonable soul. Consciousness or the soul of man – this is what separates humans from the robots. Because people have a “ghost» (ghost), even if their bodies are replaced with cybernetic components, including kibermozgom, they retain their humanity. At the same time, completely built from scratch robot will miss such a ghost who will provide him with a genuine soul and intellect.

Argument “head in the sand”, presented by Turing, is that “the creation of thinking machines would be terrible. Let us hope and believe that this will not happen. ” Such an objection due to the fact that “we would like to believe that certain people in a subtle way superior to all other creatures.” That is still unique. But we have already mentioned that to create artificial intelligence – a very attractive and profitable target.

Turing believes this argument is very weak because it is based on our fears give way to other thinking beings. This fear is realized in the films of the “Terminator” with artificial intelligence system SkyNet, which decided to destroy people after activation. Since SkyNet is a “disembodied” mind supercomputer, it uses terminators to achieve its goal. Robots of this film embodies the fear that is generated by the aforementioned philosophical objection, and show that just because we are afraid of something, it is not devoid of soil.

According to Turing, the mathematical limits of logic and computing can significantly limit the intelligence of computers. He argues that “there are a number of results of mathematical logic which can be used to show that the powers of discrete machines are severely limited,” in particular, referring to Godel’s theorem.

Mathematical limit is related to other restrictions intelligent machines “argument in favor of consciousness.” Turing machine develops the idea of ​​imitating party party game, that is presenting itself as a person. It is here that an idea of ​​the Turing test: the investigator is trying to determine, he speaks with an artificial creature or machine. If the machine is “pass” the test and convince the investigator that she – a man, before it will be artificial intelligence.

Application of the Turing test is shown in the movie “Blade Runner,” where the car “Voight-Kampf” is used to monitor the physiological responses and determine whether the subject “replicant” (android with artificial intelligence) or the same person. Note that to date has not passed the Turing test no car.

In “argument in favor of bias” Turing provides a list of human traits that artificial intelligence may never possess. The list: kindness, love, sense of humor or the ability to do something really new. Turing himself argues: people form their own idea of ​​what the machine is and what it can do, based on their own observations. As observed today machines (and in 1950 especially) no such human traits, we can assume that will never be. But science fiction has found many ways to humanize AI.

The young hacker David Lightman almost accidentally starts the third world war, playing in “a world thermonuclear war” with the military supercomputer WOPR in War Games. When WOPR continues to play and trying to get access to the missile launch codes, mischievous teenagers and a scientist from the government give instruction WOPR to play tic-tac-toe with himself. Finding a perfect partner and knowing the result of each game, WOPR realizes that he want to say that a nuclear war will be no winners, so ends the game. Mathematical and computational limitations of AI used against him, to teach him to human understanding of mutual assured destruction.

Type supercomputer HOLMES, whose founder Manuel O’Kelly simply calls Mike Heinlein’s book “The Moon – Harsh Mistress” spontaneously becomes intelligent and friendly with Manuel. Having access to all the information written by people, Mike learns about the sense of humor of his friend, his jokes, riddles and songs. Humorous computer for ways to develop the newly acquired intelligence led him to what he joins a lunar revolution in the struggle for independence from the Earth. The computer sees it as a game with a friend.

This is just a small sampling of the many works of science fiction, which are alternative answers to these and other questions about artificial intelligence. Yes, in the real world machine has not yet passed the Turing test, but the creative minds of visionaries continue to seek possible ways of developing AI.

Note issue. Imagine the perfect set up for themselves artificial intelligence. No, drop all options tragic development of AI and let it be disembodied, and try to find the answer for himself: what quality should have your AI that should be able to become your indispensable?
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