Alanfujravek .. historic closer look and analysis technician!

May

8

2016

Graphical information scheme, or what is known as “Alanfujravek” Infographic , is an expression called a method to display the information, data or knowledge content through drawings and diagrams, for the purpose of delivering the idea is fast and clear.

Alanfujravek concept has evolved in recent years to become an effective method of mass communication, where it is designed assuming that he sees does not have any prior information about the content, and are considered “isotopes” isotypes an early example of Kdrhalanfujravek to transfer information quickly and easily to the masses.

Increasingly in recent years , relying on Alanfujravek as an important means for the delivery of information, especially with the availability of many free tools that help spread widely, such as social networks like Facebook and Twitter which constitute a fertile environment for the spread of this concept.

In magazines, for example, is commonly used Alanfujravek in things like show the state of the weather, and statistics, maps, while some books have been prepared entirely by Alanfujravek, such as the book ” The way things work” The Way Things Work, for “David Macaulay” david Macaulay, as the newspaper “USA Today resort to Alanfujravek in the news and various events. DC_Metro_Map_2013.svg

In modern maps, specifically those used to determine the destination, using techniques Alanfujravek to integrate a variety of information, such as the scheme for network transit, point conversion, local landmarks known. The use of public transport maps – such as Metro maps of Washington , for example , Alanfujravek to clarify public places and important presence on the map , such as downtime, airports, car parks and official buildings by placing icons modular stations.

In his book ” The visual display of quantitative information” Visual Display The of Quantitative Information , issued in 1983, puts the “Edward died” Edward Tufte foundations to benefit from the drawings and in the delivery of information through:

Display data.
Urged the viewer to think about the essence of the idea is to be transferred, rather than things like graphic design and technical production.
Avoid distracting attention away from the basic idea.
Showing many numbers in a small space.
Display data in a coherent.
Encourage the eye to compare different data.
Disclosure of data at different levels of detail.
Serve very clear to some extent.
Integrated with the verbal description and statistical information.
Although the models of contemporary Alanwowerevk deal with the amount of material, but the foundations laid by “died” is still valid to express the best way to clarify the information through drawings and diagrams, through the intensification of large amounts of information and presentation makes it easier for the reader to absorb.

historical overview

In ancient times

In 1926, he published “Christoph Scheiner” Christoph Scheiner book “Rosa Oorsena Saif al Sol” Rosa Ursina sive Sol, the book where he unveiled his research on the rotation of the sun, has been used to illustrate the writer Alanfujravek sun rotation patterns.

In 1786, engineer political and economic “William Blefer” William Playfair was the first to use the charts in his book “Atlas of commerce and politics” The Commercial and Political Atlas, in order to display England ‘s economy during the eighteenth century, and appeared in the book “Blefer” Many of the charts statistical and histograms ribbons graphs and maps of the region, and to be the first to introduce pie charts.

In about 1820, was the founding of modern science by “Carl Ritter” Carl Ritter, who considered his maps milestone by bringing it to the system marks -as geography is defined by the “Charles Sanders Pierce , ” Charles Sanders Peirce- next to the symbols and icons to.

Nightingale-mortality In 1857, he used British nurse “Florence Nayatangl” Florence Nightingale concept Alanfujravek to persuade Queen Victoria to improve the conditions of the military hospital, where he used the scheme “Coxkomb” Coxcomb, which includes a combination of compacted columns and circular diagrams to illustrate the number and causes of deaths each month during the Crimean War.

The year 1861 scheme graphic Information influential talked about Napoleon ‘s devastating campaign against Moscow, where he planned deliberately designed “Charles Joseph Maynard” Charles Joseph Minard, to capture the appearance of four Minard Variables involved in the fall of Napoleon, by a single two – dimensional image: the direction of the army during his trip, crossing the troop area, size of the army and influenced by deaths caused by hunger and wounds, and freezing temperatures suffered by the army.

And gave “James Joseph Sylvester” James Joseph Sylvester term “planned” in 1878, and through the scientific journal “Nature” Nature, and publish a set of graphs showing the relationship between chemical bonds and sports properties.

Twentieth Century

“Otto Enyorat” Otto Neurath developed the so – called “Vienna way” Vienna Method , which uses simple images to display data, and in 1942, he published “Isadore Esso” Isidore Iso statement “to Atrst” Lettrist, which is a document that covers art, culture, poetry, films and theories political, it has been installed through the literature and visual arts.

In 1958, it was suggested , “Stephen Tolmn” Stephen Toulmin graphic argument so- called “model Tolmn for pleading model”, the graph which contains six interconnected components, used for the analysis of the debate, where he was considered one of the most work “Tolmn” effect, specifically in rhetoric and communication and science fields the computer.

During 1972 and 1973, included space rovers , “Pioneer 10” and “Pioneer 11” so – called panels Pioneer, which is about two sheets of coated anodized gold , aluminum, and includes painting a fee for the purpose of delivering a message, you have been those fees are designed by “Carl Sagan” carl Sagan and “Frank Drake” Frank Drake, those fees were so unique that can be understood by the aliens because they are not connected at all human languages.

And ask a leading data visualization “Edward died , ” a series of books visual -tvseerat, visual display of quantitative information, and visualize Amuallomat- They wrote dealt with the field of data communication schemes, to describe the New York Times , “died” as “da Vinci of data”, but start after giving daily lectures and workshops Alanfujraveks work in the field, began in 1993.

As for “died”, said portraying good data means all data accurately to help the viewer to identify trends and patterns in the data, was seen as a contribution “died” in the field of display data and Alanfujravk very important, as various magazines and websites and daily newspapers rely on principles that status.

And formed Alanfujravk designed by “Peter sulfone” Peter Sullivan told the Sunday Times in the seventies and eighties and nineties of the last century an important factor in encouraging other newspapers to adopt Alanwowerevk, “sulfone” is also considered one of the writers who promoted the schemes graphical information in their writings.

Similarly, the newspaper USA Today the team worked to set a goal to use charts to make information more accessible and understandable, but that idea has been criticized as simplify events are exaggerated and that the Alanfujravek the resulting focus on entertainment content account, puts “died” the term “Chart Genk” Chartjunk referring to graphs that focus on the visual aspects and neglect the informational content.

With the spread of “vector graphics” vector graphics and “raster graphics” raster graphics and achieved widespread in computing twenty -first century, imaging data is commonly used in computer systems, such as desktop and geographic information systems publications.

Twenty – one – century

By the year 2000, it was used based on the “Adobe Flash” program fees and on the Internet are many techniques in the charts to create a variety of groups of products and games preparation.

Similarly, television began to enter Alanfujravek in the experience of viewers, and one example of the use of Alanfujravek in television and pop culture is the music video for the band Norwegian “Ruizkub”, in their song “reminded me of ” Remind Me, where the video is fully contained Anfujravek moving, and similarly, in 2004, he used the French energy company “Areva” Areva Alanfujravek in commercial advertisements televised.

With the emergence of alternatives to Adobe Flash, such as “HTML 5” HTML 5 and “CSS 3” CSS3, a variety of media outlets take advantage of the tools provided by such software in the design Alanfujravek that.

And benefit the field of journalism is one of Alanfujravek to view new stories, by using “concept Maestro”, can integrate text, images, charts successfully to express the story, and requires the preparation of this style of Nalanfujravek cooperation and coordination of the different operators in the editing room to improve time management, and design Maestro system to improve the presentation of stories and news to be suitable for readers of the media busy.

And use many business Alanfujravek as tools to communicate and attract potential consumers, is considered a form of content marketing, has become a tool used by Internet marketers to create content for others linked to strengthen the company ‘s reputation and its presence on the Internet.

Alanfujravek and has a good presence in the classrooms as well, also encourages educational lessons students to use Alanfujravek to clarify their ideas and a better understanding of educational content.

With the immense popularity enjoyed by social media these days, is commonly used Alanfujravek to clarify the various ideas, for example, it was used Hachtaq “infographic” about 56,765 visits in March 2012.

Analysis
Gartner_Hype_Cycle_for_Emerging_Technologies Alanfujraveks is divided into three sections, are the visuals and content knowledge, and includes visuals colors and cartoons, which are divided into basic and reference the idea, and include basic idea fees on the visual representation of the basic data, while the reference fees like icons used to indicate the specific information although it does not always exist in Alanfujraveks.

Visual element contributes to bring effectiveness Anfujraveks, where he receives humans information from the five senses (sight, touch, hearing, smell, taste), but they actually greet the largest amounts of information through sight, compared with the rest of the other senses, which devotes about 50% of the capacities brain to serve the function of vision, so the brain image processing speed than the speed of word processing, brain can handle all the pictures at one time, while the addresses of each line of text individually, so the brain longer needs to deal with texts.

In designing the optical Anfujravek appearance, should some of the points are taken into account to improve the visual graphic effect, the six components of the optical encryption, which includes space and signs and interdependence and Conclusion properties retina temporary encryption, which can be used for each component separately to represent the relationship between different data patterns, and Studies have shown that spatial location is considered the most effective representation of numerical data the way, which leads to faster and easier to understand when the viewer, so often the stylists spatial representation of the most important relationships presented in graphs.

Imaging data
Often uses imaging data in Alanfujravek, and there are several patterns for the show can be used to represent the same data sets, and therefore it is very necessary to determine the imaging optimized for the data sets by taking fees for properties into account, such as location, size, shape and color, and in fact, there are five basic patterns imaging categories, namely time series data, statistical distributions, maps, and the hierarchical chain, and networking.

Time Series

Processor_families_in_TOP500_supercomputers.svg Time of the most common forms of series data are considered filming common data, as it contributes to document data sets over time. Examples of this category come graphs and charts compacted indicators, charts indicators are normally used when the values ​​are less important compared with the relative changes . For example, Potential investors in the stock market using this pattern because they do not really care about the value of the stock compared to the growth rate. the charts are a compact spatial schemes stacked on top of each other, allowing the viewer to identify the overall and individual styles.

Census

Statistical distributions reveal diverse tendencies vary depending on how the distribution of numbers, and common examples by histogram or what is known Balheistowerem, and “Fund scheme and Oesker” box-and-whisker plots , which shows statistical features such as average and extreme values, also includes this type of Alanwowerevk schemes similar to the “trunk striped paper” stem-and-leaf plots and “Que-Que scheme” QQ plots, and helps ” the trunk and paper planner” For example , when dealing with a set of numbers and focus on the distribution of frequency.

Maps

Final_2008_electoral_cartogram (1) Maps are a traditional way to display geographic data, and use “Maps flow” flow maps to express time and the space, while using “Maps Kurublat” Choropleth maps to encrypt data over the colors and geographical areas, while the “Alcarturams” Cartograms maps where distracting form the region entirely, and variable data encryption.

Hierarchy

Uganda_Export_Treemap It can be for many of the data sets that are classified hierarchically, such as some government data, and here we can for this type of Alanwowerevk to play an active role in clarifying the idea, is the “link-schemes knot” node-link effective examples used to display data hierarchically.

Networks

Farey_diagram_horizontal_arc_5 Reveals the network of different relationships imaging, such as kinship and friendship, and falls below it are three basic styles, such as power – oriented scheme, and charts the arc, and matrix display, and is a blueprint guiding force very common, which uses a contract similar to the charged particles, and links to the withdrawal of the contract.

The bow schemes, it is a single direction schemes, including contract and circular arcs connecting the contract with each other, while the matrix display schemes are frequently used by the computer and mathematicians.

The designer can Alanwowerevk these days that integrates multiple styles in one chart, next to other things such as images and text to, and some modern Alanwowerevks patterns do not show data, but uses brief summaries vicinity of colors to display knowledge content.

These days, you can design Alanwowerevk by hand and using traditional tools such as pen and ruler, or with the help of a computer with software touted as faster, easier, or using sites and tools offered by the Internet.

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