## As shelter during a nuclear disaster

Jan

21

2014

As shelter during a nuclear disaster

So, let’s say, in your city a nuclear bomb exploded low power. How long do you have to hide, and where to do it, to avoid the consequences of a nuclear fallout?

Michael Dillon, a scientist from Lavermorskoy National Laboratory, spoke about the fallout and how to survive. After numerous studies of fallout analysis of many factors and possible developments, he developed a plan of action in case of a disaster.

Furthermore, the plan aims to Dillon ordinary citizens, who are not able to determine where the wind will blow, and what was the magnitude of the explosion.
Small bomb

Dillon technique for protection from radioactive fallout yet developed only in theory. The fact that it is designed for small nuclear bombs from 1 to 10 kilotons.

Dillon argues that nuclear bombs now associate all with incredible power and destruction that might occur during the Cold War. However, this threat seems less likely than a terrorist attack using small nuclear bombs, several times smaller than those dropped on Hiroshima and simply incomparably less than those that could destroy all happen global war between the two countries.

Dillon’s plan is based on the assumption that after a small nuclear bomb city survived, and now its residents had to escape from the fallout.

The chart below shows the difference between the radius of destruction by a bomb in a situation which explores Dillon, and the radius of the bomb Cold War arsenal. The most dangerous area is indicated by dark blue (standard psi – it funt/dyuym2, which is used to measure the force of the explosion, 1 psi = 720 kg/m2).

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People in this city from the blast zone, at risk of radiation dose and burns. Range of radiation danger after the explosion of a nuclear bomb small much less than that of a thermonuclear weapon of the Cold War.

For example, a 10 kiloton warhead would create a radiation hazard to 1 kilometer from the epicenter, and the fallout can go another 10-20 miles. So it turns out that a nuclear attack today – it’s not an instant death for all living things. Maybe your city even after it recovers.
What if a bomb exploded

If you see a bright flash, do not come to the window – you may suffer as look back. As in the case of thunder and lightning, blast moves much slower than the explosion.

Now you have to take care of protection from radioactive fallout, but in the case of a small explosion, you do not need to look for special isolated refuge. To protect the shelter will be in the normal building, just need to know which one.

30 minutes after the explosion, you must find a suitable shelter. For 30 minutes, all of the initial radiation from the explosion will disappear and become the main danger radioactive particles, the size of a grain of sand, which will settle around you.

Dillon explains:

If during a disaster you are in a precarious shelter, which can not provide a decent defense, and you know that nearby there is no such building within 15 minutes, you have to wait half an hour and then go look for him. Make sure that before you go to the shelter, you will not be radioactive particles the size of sand.

But what buildings can become a normal haven? Dillon says the following:

Between you and the consequences of the explosion to be as much as possible obstacles and distance. Buildings with thick concrete walls and roof, large amounts of land, for example, when you are sitting in the basement, surrounded on all sides by land. You can also go deeper into the large buildings to be as far away from the open air with the consequences of the disaster.

Think about where you can find such a building in your town, and how far it is from you.

Maybe it’s the basement of your home or building with lots of interior walls and a library with shelves of books and concrete walls or anything else. Just choose a building to which you can get in for half an hour, and do not rely on trucks – many will flee the city and the roads will be completely clogged.

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Let’s say you got to his refuge, and now the question arises – how long to sit in it, until the threat has passed? In films show different developments ranging from a few minutes in the shelter and ending several generations in the hopper. Dillon argues that they are very far from the truth.

It is best to stay in the shelter until help comes.

Given that we are talking about a small bomb attack range which is less than a mile, the rescuer should react quickly and begin the evacuation. In the event that no one will come to the rescue, the shelter does not need to spend less than a day, but it is better to wait until rescuers arrive – they will indicate the desired escape route so you do not have jumped in places with high levels of radiation.
The principle of operation of the radioactive fallout

It may seem strange, it is safe enough to be out of the shelter through the night, but Dillon explains that the biggest danger comes from the explosion early fallout, and they are heavy enough to settle within a few hours after the explosion. Usually they cover an area in the immediate vicinity of the explosion, according to the wind direction.

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These large particles are the most dangerous because of the high radiation levels that will provide an immediate offensive radiation sickness. This distinguishes them from smaller doses of radiation that can cause cancer many years after the incident.

If you hid in the shelter, it will not save you from the perspective of cancer in the future, but it will prevent early death from radiation sickness.

It should also be remembered that contamination – it is not a magic substance that flies everywhere and penetrates into any place. There will be a limited region with high levels of radiation, and after you leave the shelter, it will be necessary as soon as possible out of it.

Here you need and rescuers who will say where the boundary is the danger zone, and how far it is necessary to leave. Of course, in addition to the most dangerous large particles remain in the air a lot easier, but they can not cause immediate radiation sickness – what you are trying to avoid the explosion.

Dillon also said that radioactive particles decay very quickly, so be outside seekers 24 hours after the explosion is much safer than immediately after it.

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Our pop culture continues savor the issue of nuclear apocalypse, on the planet when there are only a few survivors who had taken refuge in underground bunkers, but a nuclear attack may not be as devastating and far-reaching.

So it is worth thinking about the city and figure out where to go in case anything happens. Maybe some ugly concrete building, which always seemed to you a miscarriage architecture someday save your life.

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