Better understanding of electromagnetic waves makes tiny antennas possible




New insights in electromagnetism may lead to antennas that are small enough to fit on chips. For example, mobile phones may not only be made smaller, but can also be the further miniaturization of devices with transmit and receive capabilities are continued.

field lines Electromagnetic waves in accordance with the search not only be induced by acceleration of electrons, but also by symmetry breaking . This would permit electromagnetic waves which are much larger than the waves which can be made on the basis of conventional antennas.

Antenna Measurements have traditionally been to do with the wavelength of the signal that they have to be able to receive or send. That leads in relation to transistors on a chip to large antennas. Applications, for example, the IoT, however, require smaller antennas.

The phenomenon of radiation from accelerated electrons was discovered over a century ago. This phenomenon has no counterpart in quantum mechanics, where electrons from a higher to a lower energy state jump. The observations of the researchers of radiation as a result of broken symmetry of the electric field, is a possible link between these two fields.

An antenna is designed to provide energy to swing in the free space in the form of electromagnetic waves or radio waves. On the other hand, an antenna to pick up this energy back out of the free space. This creates within the current electronics for a difficult problem, because antennas are still relatively large and do not fit into the ever smaller electronic circuits. This physical limitation is due to the size of an antenna is determined by the emitted wavelength.

The research team from the University of Cambridge examined how symmetry breaking with the traditional method to generate signals can be combined. For this purpose they use antennas with dielectric thin films of piezoelectric material, which they generate electromagnetic signals by putting alternating voltages on it. The emitted electromagnetic radiation of the dielectric material is a combination of accelerating electrons on the metallic electrodes which are connected to it, coupled with symmetry breaking of the electric field.

This combination creates the possibility to produce very small antennas, which can be made so small that they can be integrated into chips. According to lead researcher Gehan Amaratunga is the symmetry breaking, combined with accelerating electrons, the missing piece in the puzzle of the electromagnetic theory. The whole study is in the journal Physical Review Letters.

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