Confirm whether physics of the existence of Higgs boson?




4 July 2012 physicists announced the break – open subatomic particle, corresponding to the characteristics of the Higgs boson. Using data from two experiments of the LHC – CMS and ATLAS – Scientists have discovered a particle with energy corresponding theory.

“We are seeing a new boson,” – declared Joe Inkandela, a leading physicist CMS, the sound of applause at a special meeting in Geneva. Was the last piece of the puzzle called the Standard Model? Will the opening of the beginning of the end of physics such as we know it?

A year after that historic day physicists are still trying to characterize this “new boson,” and although he does look like the Higgs boson, can we consider the quantum hunt completed?

In the best tradition of elementary particle physics, scientists are still working on it.

“Without doubt, we have found that this is a new particle, a boson and it is. However, we have yet to prove that it is the Higgs, “- said the physicist Pauline Gagnon from CERN.

Wait a minute. We are still waiting for “confirmation”?

Higgs boson – is the last piece of the Standard Model – a comprehensive theory that describes the nature of subatomic particles in the universe. Born in the theory developed by a team of physicists in the 1960s under the leadership of Peter Higgs particle has long been the focus of the most powerful particle accelerators. In particular, the 7.5 billion euros has been allocated for the construction of the LHC on the Franco-Swiss border specifically to search for the elusive Higgs.

The constant insertion time, energy and money in the search for a subatomic particle has generated the most complex experiment in the history of mankind, and all in order to understand one of the most fundamental mysteries in physics. It is believed that the Higgs boson – a “exchange particle” that gives matter mass, without the universe as we know it would not exist. In short, to the Standard Model was correct, the Higgs boson would have to exist. Otherwise, quantum physics would have been wrong and we waited for the revolution in physics. Physicists are very fond of the revolution in physics, so not all scientists were elated when they announced the discovery of the Higgs boson. Many would be convenient if the Higgs boson does not exist.

Since the high-profile announcement last year, the complex problem of the characterization of the particle candidate LHC physicists held in constant tension. Despite the fact that the energy level predicted for the Higgs boson, a boson exists, it can not be the Higgs. Some physicists have supported the idea of ​​the existence of only one type of Higgs boson, while the proponents of the theory of superstrings account for at least five.

“Did we have the right boson, or just one of several predicted by other theories? Until now, all pointed to the fact that it belongs to the Standard Model Higgs, “- says Gagnon. – “It looks, sings, dances, and smells like the Higgs boson.”

Indeed, almost immediately after the discovery of the “new boson”, the physicists had to work on understanding the other physical characteristics of the particle. To be a Higgs boson, the particle must have zero spin and have a positive parity. Spin – a quantum measure of angular momentum and parity – a measure of the behavior of the specular reflection of a particle. After analyzing the data, the number of which is 2.5 times more than last year, in March, physicists announced that the candidate Higgs bosons “does not have a positive spin, and is even.” So far, so good.

As the analysis of all goes to the fact that the Higgs boson does. However, some physicists do not exclude the possibility that nature leads them by the nose, while others believe that we can never say that the Higgs is just one.

“I’m not sure that one day someone will say that it is the Higgs boson of the Standard Model,” – said Bill Murray, coordinator of the experiment ATLAS. – “We can never say that he is one, because there will always be another, so heavy that you will not even be able to do …”.

It is possible that even the LHC can not accelerate protons to that speed and give as much energy as a result of the collision will be born a true Higgs boson.

So physicists will work hard to make sure that nature does not play with them in the tricky game and did not spoil the purity of the experimental results.

“You can never prove that something is true, you can only prove that it is wrong,” – says Murray. – “All we can do is to eliminate a maximum of alternatives.”

Well, a lot of work to the International Linear Collider, which was presented recently.
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