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Facts | 10 topical today Inventions of Ancient Egypt
Facts | 10 topical today Inventions of Ancient Egypt
Everyone knows that the ancient Egyptian civilization has created many outstanding things. But today, we do not talk about the famous pyramids. The civilization of Ancient Egypt never ceases to amaze with their achievements and thousands of years later. In addition to the great things about which every schoolboy knows, the ancient Egyptians made much more modest at first inventions, the strength of which is that people are enjoying the fruits of their so far. Egyptian ladies wore jewelry and wigs, men engaged in sports, and children played board games and dolls. From fashion to agriculture is difficult to find such a sphere of human activity, which can not be enriched by their achievements this greatest civilization of antiquity. There was not enough there is not that mobile. It is, alas, there is a different era. Although it is much earlier than commonly believed .
1. Makeup eye area
Perhaps its significance for mankind, the invention and can not be compared with the wheel and the method of extraction of the fire, but by the time during which the technology is unchanged, it is the achievement of mankind, perhaps, be attributed to the most pressing current discoveries antiquity. Invented by about 6 thousand years ago, the eye makeup since never went out of fashion.
The most surprising is that even in our days using the same method of applying make-up, which was developed by the ancient Egyptians. The Egyptians did the black kohl using galena (galena). Green kohl was made of malachite with the addition of the same galena, which gave the color saturation.
Make-up was intended not only to the Egyptian ladies and gentlemen but. Status and attractiveness in ancient Egypt walked hand in hand, and among the upper class in this country view was that the more makeup, the better. Using makeup Egyptians explained not only by the desire to look attractive. It was believed that the paint is to be applied is the cure for various diseases of the eye. Despite such widespread belief in ancient times, today it is known that lead is very harmful to humans.
The reader may get the impression that the ancient Egyptians, and only to those involved that brings beauty. But this is not the case. It was in ancient Egypt, was established writing. From now on, your thoughts can be recorded and saved for posterity.
In the use of images to convey information already in those days there was nothing new. Found in France and Spain, paintings of ancient people have been created over 30 thousand years before Christ. But a masterful ability to convey the drawings real events did not mean the advent of writing.
The first graphic systems for the languages appeared in Egypt and Mesopotamia. The first Egyptian system of icons appeared for 6 thousand years before our era. Each of the icons is consistent with a particular word. Such a system of writing had a lot of restrictions.
Over time, the Egyptians perfected their writing, enriching it with alphabetic characters corresponding to certain sounds (something like the modern spelling). In this way they were able to record the names and abstract ideas.
Egyptians had established a system of hieroglyphs, consisting of alphabetic and syllabic characters and ideograms, signs, reflecting on the whole letter word. Writing has allowed civilization to leave traces for historians. Sometimes not quite clear traces.
Contemporary writing, of course, is different from the Egyptian. But the idea remains the same to this day serves humanity. It is hard to imagine our world without a written language, which remains an essential component of human culture. Since then, new technologies to record human speech and even perform video. But the role of writing is still huge.
3. Sheet of papyrus
Carving inscriptions in stone long and uncomfortable. For a new dynamic in writing the new material. By creating a written language, the ancient Egyptians have found and what to write.
Papyrus was the ancient forerunner of paper, which was invented in China about 140 years before the birth of Christ. Papyrus is a plant from the family of sedge that grows in marshy areas near the shores of the Nile. Tough fibrous sheath of this plant is ideal for creating the material on which to write.
Ancient books are not intertwined, but rolled up in a scroll – one long sheet of papyrus. This remarkable material was used for the recording of religious texts, literature and even music.
Technology of production of papyrus writing ancient Egyptians kept in strict confidence, allowing them to export this material to other countries in the region. The most interesting is that the process of creating the first in the history of material for writing was not written anywhere, and for this reason has been lost. But in 1965, Dr. Hassan Rahab (Hassan Ragab) finally managed to please the scientific world is the creation of a sheet of papyrus.
From papyrus did not only ancient “bumagozamenitel”, but also sails, strappy sandals, and many other small items of ancient Egyptian life.
Modern man in the absence of a calendar may miss an important meeting or come to work on weekends. This is unfortunate, but the ancient Egyptians lived in very harsh conditions. For them, the calendar meant wealth, and without threatening the real hunger. They could not miss the flooding of the Nile (an event that occurred annually). In these circumstances, the entire agricultural system of the country at great risk. The ancient Egyptians had no choice, they could not rely on chance. Therefore, for several millennia BC they started using the calendar.
This calendar was dedicated to the needs of agriculture, without which, as we know, there is no food. Year was divided into three main seasons (or the time of year) flood, growth and yield. Each season consisted of four months, each of which contained a 30 days. Does not that much familiar in this ancient calendar?
But, if you add up all the months of the Egyptian year, receives only 360 days, which is less than the actual treatment cycle of our planet around the sun. To reduce this difference, the Egyptians added between seasons crop and flood five additional days. Those five days were the off-season religious festivals in honor of the children of the gods.
It should be noted that the Julian calendar (old style) and modern Gregorian are basically modifications of the ancient Egyptian calendar. Thus, the ancient Egyptians were the creators of the measure by which mankind celebrates its landmarks and creates plans.
No new-fangled gadget people can do without. But without food. In ancient times, this simple truth has been understood by everyone, because almost all the people were engaged in agriculture. Plow the land – not an easy task for primitive tools. And mankind has created a plow.
Among historians still tense debate about what civilization is the first to create this indispensable agricultural tool. Egyptian and Sumerian? Plough – a concept very common and leaves plenty of room for modification.
Most likely the first plow was created on the basis of an appropriate hand tools. But its effectiveness was questionable. Too easy, it only scraped the ground and could not plow it deeply. Now it is a dead-end tool called “scrubbing the plow.” Under the scorching Egyptian sun to work with hand plow was uncomfortable.
But the situation has changed dramatically over two millennia before Christ. The Egyptians realized that the plow can pull a cattle and do it much more effectively than the man who gives way to the forces of a bull. First, the plow was attached to the horns of the animal, but this design makes it difficult to breath. Then there was a thought-out system of straps, making the mount more effective.
Invention of the plow brought Egyptian agriculture on a hitherto unprecedented level. In conjunction with the predictable cycle of the Nile floods, the plow allowed Egypt to simplify the processing of land to such an extent that had not reached no civilization in the world.
6. Mouth freshener
Modern man still enjoys and the invention of the ancient Egyptians. Numerous fresheners, scented gum and breath mints do inhabitant of the modern world fresh. The ancient Egyptians also took care not only about the useful, but also beautiful.
By providing food for itself, it’s time to think about the bad breath. This odor even at that time was seen as a sign of unhealthy teeth. The ancient Egyptians did not drink sugary soda liters, but the stones are millstones, they milled grain into flour, generously “enriched” diet of sand that was scratching the enamel and makes the teeth of representatives of a great civilization vulnerable to infection.
The Egyptians were doctors, dentists but this ancient country has not yet possessed. So treat your teeth and gums was no one. And the Egyptians could only endure the pain and eliminate odor by a first in the history of similarity “gum” made of frankincense, myrrh and cinnamon, boiled in honey. This composition was shaped beads.
The inhabitants of ancient Egypt were able to not only work, decorate and provide freshness to your breath. Active rest was already in vogue.
At 90 kilometers south of Cairo in the second and third centuries AD, during the Roman rule in Egypt, a settlement Narmoteos (Narmoutheos). That is where archaeologists found the room in which the track and found a set of balls of different sizes.
Track length was 3.9 m, width 20 cm and depth of 9.6 cm. In the center of each track was located a square recess with a side of a square of 11.9 centimeters.
If in a modern bowling relies knock the pins at the end of the track, you should get in the ancient Egyptian located in the middle of the track opening. Players stood on opposite ends of the track and tried not only to drive into a hole balls of different sizes, but also to bring down the opponent with the ball of the course.
8. Shave and a hair cut
Although this among historians and there is no certainty, but it is quite possible that the Egyptians first learned to do hair style. It could be quite rational reason. In hot climates Egyptian long hair and beards brought people uncomfortable.
So they cut their hair short and shaved regularly. Priests and does shaved hair on the entire body every three days. Throughout most of Egyptian history, to be clean-shaven was fashionable, and the hair “thickets” showed low social status.
Do not be ruled out that the Egyptian sharp stones with wooden handles were the first in the world razors. Over time, razors are made of copper. It was the first time the Egyptians in the history of the world there was the barber profession. Afford a hairdresser at home could only rich ancient Egyptian aristocrats. But people could take advantage of simpler services of barbers, who have equipped their first hair salons in the world under the shade of plane trees.
Oddly enough, but the Egyptians believed beard attractive. Provided that, if it is false beards, which were made from the hair bundle. Even more interesting, false beard worn by not only the Egyptian pharaohs, but the queen.
The shape of the bill beard could determine the social status of its owner. Ordinary citizens were small, about 5-cm, the barbs. Pharaohs also was characterized by a huge beard length, which termination hairdressers squaring. Their gods Egyptians represented the owners of more luxurious and long beards.
9. The door lock
Механизм древнеегипетского замка
For this invention, too, should be thankful to the Egyptian civilization. The ancient door lock appeared about 6 thousand years ago. With it, the door blocked by wooden pins. Open and close the oldest lock can be using the key. This design and still has not lost its relevance.
In one of the descriptions of the Egyptian door locks are their sizes. The largest was approximately 60 centimeters in length. Egyptian locks provide security to a greater degree than the technologies that were invented later by the Romans. Roman Castles were more simple structure. But it was the Romans were the first to use the spring.
Bad teeth were causing a lot of worries the ancient Egyptians as the bread contained the rock dust of the mill. Had to think hard to keep teeth clean. Archaeologists have discovered a toothpick, which were used to extract trapped between teeth bites of food. It is believed that the Egyptians, Babylonians, along with enriched human civilization toothbrush. Egyptian toothbrush is a specially worn at the end of a twig of a tree.
But this does not exhaust those innovations that have made the Egyptians in the field of oral health. They created a toothpaste. It consisted of a powder rubbed in bovine feet of ash, burnt eggshells, and pumice.
Recently, archaeologists have discovered ancient Egyptian recipe for a more hygienic toothpaste and papyrus with the instructions for cleaning the teeth. But these valuable finds date back to the fourth century AD, that is, after a period of Roman rule. The unknown author of the papyrus tells the reader how to mix in specific proportions of rock salt, mint, toffee and dried flowers, pepper, and as a result get a “powder that will make your teeth white and excellent.”
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