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Facts | History flash cards
Facts | History flash cards
Without flash memory cards are inconceivable today’s mobile devices. Our readers already know the principle of flash storage. It is time to get acquainted with the design of flash memory cards. Let’s do this by the example drives the mid-nineties of the last century. They work too hard and thus are able to form in the reader a general idea about the design of flash storage media. At the same time we have to dive into the history of these very topical in the media these days. Let us say a few words about the standards that allowed the use of the same card in different devices. ‘ll Pay some attention and promising technology, which in future could replace flash memory, as three dozen times faster than her.
For several reasons, better use flash memory as a storage rather than traditional hard drives. The modules of flash memory has no moving parts and therefore they do not make noise. The speed of access to the flash memory is higher than the hard drive. And, of course, flash drives are compact and lighter. Why not replace hard drives flash storage media? The fact is that the cost of storing a megabyte of data on the hard disk is much lower than on the flash card. Furthermore, classical drives superior flash drives volume. It is important to understand that in the considered earlier hierarchical pyramid of computer memory stick is level, allotted hard drive. And it does not matter: in addition to it (usually in computers) or instead of (mostly on mobile devices).
Flash memory cards SmartMedia done without soldering
In the image (top to bottom): a plastic card body memory “rosin case”; bonding wires, the memory NAND EEPROM ( More information about the EEPROM ); contacts.
Following the tradition of making a little history, consider the flash cards on the example of one of the first of their species, SSFDC (floppy-disk card, floppy flash card). The format was developed by Toshiba and is better known under the name of SmartMedia. They went on sale in 1995. The size of these cards was from 2 to 128 megabytes. SmartMedia were relatively small (especially when compared with the floppy disks) 45 millimeters in length, 37 mm in width and less than one millimeter in thickness.
Time passed and the old maps it is time to make way for a new, more concise and compact, such as xD-Picture Cards and Secure Digital. Currently, SmartMedia flash card in the past.
Design SmartMedia cards were extraordinary simplicity. The electrode was connected to the chip flash memory with tie wires. Chip flash memory, the electrode and bonding wires were placed in a kind of “rosin case” with the use of technology OMTP (over-molded thin package). Packing in this case replaced with a soldering iron. Solder together the individual components was not necessary.
OMTP-module cemented in the card body and it acquired its final form. Both the data and energy flows into the chip flash memory through the electrode. It happened, of course, only when the card has been inserted. Maps differ in requirements to the supply voltage. Determine which SmartMedia card in front of you is very simple. If the label on the left, then pyativoltovaya. If right, then it was necessary to drive voltage 3.3 volt. SmartMedia preserved, reads and erases small blocks of 256 or 512 bits.
CompactFlash: 100 gigabytes in a single chart
In 1994, the company had developed Sandisk flash memory cards CompactFlash. They differed from SmartMedia controller and having a greater thickness. CompactFlash contained a small fee with chip flash memory and a dedicated controller chip. All of this was placed inside the housing, which was thicker than the SmartMedia. Dimensions of the map 43 millimeter in width and 36 millimeters in length. The width of the CompactFlash card differed: Type I (Type 1) – 3.3 millimeters; Type II (Type 2) – 5.5 millimeters.
Excessive thickness can certainly be regarded as a drawback. But CompactFlash was an advantage. These cards can work under voltage as 3.3 volts and 5 volts. And this superiority was not the only one. The increased thickness allows you to put in a housing CompactFlash flash memory chips with a total capacity of 8 MB to 100 GB.
A controller improves performance. In particular, it was noticeable when using the card in devices with a weak processor. The technological process of CompactFlash was more complex than the method of making SmartMedia.
Standards of flash memory
Memory Cards SmartMedia, CompactFlash, and PCMCIA (Type I and Type II) correspond to the standards developed by the International Association of cards for the PC (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association, PCMCIA). The standardization has made it possible to use CompactFlash and SmartMedia in a variety of devices. There were and there are still special adapters, card readers for memory cards. There had been such a relevant adapter, plug into a standard floppy disk drive. And to this day, are relevant: USB-card readers (in fact transforming the card into an ordinary USB flash drive) and adapters for slot PCMCIA, which is found in many laptops.
For example, the very first game for the PlayStation and PlayStation 2 backwards compatible with PlayStation 3, which lacks a slot for memory cards used in earlier gaming consoles. To import your saved game data on a new gaming device, gamers have to buy a special adapter. Memory Card Sony Memory Stick is not only compatible with devices known Japanese corporations, but also with many device from other manufacturers. Users should like to thank the idea of standardization for the fact that the same flash memory cards can work with a variety of computers, digital cameras, smart phones and other devices.
In September 2006, the South Korean electronics giant Samsung announced the development of the memory phase change (PRAM, Phase-change Random Access Memory), nicknamed “excellent RAM» (Perfect RAM). This is the “nickname” forms the same acronym «PRAM». This type of data warehouse combines lightning-fast access characteristic of memory and non-volatility of flash drives.
What is a non-volatile memory? This is a memory that does not lose data even when it is not energized. PRAM is 30 times faster and 10 times more durable than conventional flash memory. What will replace the stick? Many of you have probably asked yourself this question. Maybe in the future stick replace hard drives based on PRAM, or other similar technology to it.
According to the materials computer.howstuffworks.com
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Tags: memory modules , Flash memory , Flash .
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