Fiction | International Linear Collider: from fantasy to reality




Fiction | International Linear Collider: from fantasy to reality


About a week ago, it became known to the completion of the technical design of the successor to the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) – International Linear Collider (ILC). In this article I would like to stay in more detail on the new collider and its importance to science.

LHC found the Higgs boson, what does that mean?


Recall that the 4 July 2012 physicists around the world, working with the world’s largest scientific object – the Large Hadron Collider at the European particle physics laboratory CERN in Switzerland, announced to the world the discovery of the particle, which is very similar to the long-awaited Higgs boson . Up to this point, the Higgs boson is the missing element in the Standard Model, which describes the fundamental particles and the forces that are responsible for the mass of other elementary particles. A few months after the declaration particle to be officially confirmed.

It will take a lot more time in order to ensure that the properties of the Higgs boson, according to the expectations of physicists. The energy of the Higgs is within a range of opportunities ILC. At the moment too early to guess what additional information about the properties of the Higgs boson will appear after conducting additional experiments at the LHC, but even without it we can not underestimate the potential of the ILC, which can be used for a more detailed study of the mysterious particle.

By colliding at special points of collision the electron beams and the opposite particles – positron International Linear Collider will be able to measure with unprecedented accuracy the Higgs boson properties such as mass and strength of the interaction with other particles. How accurate is the Standard Model describes the properties of the Higgs boson? There may be several types of Higgs boson , or is there something else? Exact measurements that can be made on the ILC, can get answers to all your questions.
What is the Standard Model?


The Standard Model – the theoretical structure of particle physics, which describes the known particles that make up matter and three of the four known fundamental interactions between them.

These interactions or forces are electromagnetic forces with which ordinary users face every day, including lights, TV or transmitting information through a wireless module. The standard model also describes the strong interaction (which holds the quarks inside protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus, thereby forming a plurality of elements from helium to iron and uranium, of which is land), and the weak force (which is responsible for the sun and without which life on Earth would have been impossible, as the processes of radioactive decay).

The standard model works very well, but most do know that it is incomplete. Suffice it to recall the gravity. She describes the visible matter, but it is only the lion’s share of all the matter that makes up the universe. About 95 percent of the so-called dark matter is out of sight of the Standard Model, which in the foreseeable future will be the foundation of a unified and final theory. According to scientists, the ILC is able to shed some light on the mysterious dark matter and fill all the gaps in the Standard Model.
What is the Higgs boson and the Higgs mechanism?


The Standard Model successfully describes all existing and known to mankind elementary particles and the interactions between them. But something is missed. The standard model is not yet able to answer one basic question: why do most of these elementary particles have mass?

Such well-known theoretical physicists like Robert Brout, Francois Englert, Peter Higgs, Gerald Guralnik, Carl Hagen and Thomas Kibble describe a mechanism that provides an answer to this question. According to the tenets of the mechanism everywhere in space there is a certain medium or a field, the interaction of the particles with which it gets its mass. According to Peter Higgs, this mechanism implies the existence of particles that remained invisible to mankind until July 4, 2012 – the Higgs boson.

The Higgs mechanism predicts that the Higgs boson is a scalar particle, that is, has zero spin. Similar particle with zero spin in the nature does not exist. The neutral spinless nature of the Higgs boson can fill the void, just as in the process of condensation of steam generated sea.

With the discovery of the Higgs boson, a number of new questions about the alleged properties of the boson, which spawned a new area of ​​research, and opened a new chapter in particle physics.
As the ILC will be able to help in the study of the Higgs boson?


The International Linear Collider is a kind of complement to the LHC. Recall that the LHC is a ring-shaped Super Proton, who is busy studying the physics of elementary particles at the highest energies. International Linear Collider will study the same phenomenon, but use a completely different approach. ILC will open the way to more accurate calculations and will explore the new laws of nature.

In addition to its spinless nature, the Higgs boson interacts and generates a lot of other particles. This is his second unique feature. Accurate measurement of the force with which the Higgs boson interacts with other particles having different masses will confirm or refute the predictions of scientists. International Linear Collider may help identify several types of Higgs boson. Another unique feature of the Higgs boson – is his relationship with himself. The Standard Model describes exactly how the Higgs boson interacts with other particles and with each other. ILC capabilities will help to accurately determine the properties and potential of the Higgs boson and to confirm whether it is thus the Higgs boson, which describes the standard model.

How far can the Standard Model?

If the LHC does not find anything that even indirectly alludes to the deviation from the Standard Model, the scientists have to determine the energy scale for which the standard model will continue to be acceptable. One way to figure out this issue – is to check the stability of the theory. Stability theory is determined by the exact value of the mass of the Higgs boson and the top quark mass.

Is the so-called theory of “vacuum stability” is sustainable or not depends on the exact value of the mass of the top quark. International Linear Collider can measure the mass with unprecedented accuracy and decide the fate of the Standard Model.
What is dark matter and dark energy?


Most of the matter that makes up the universe is dark. Without it, at the present time there would be no stars, no galaxies, no life. Due to the dark matter of the universe is held together. During the last 10-15 years, scientists have made progress in understanding the properties of dark matter, mainly by evidence to the contrary.

Recent research on the question, how dark matter affects the universe, have shown that this type, as opposed to any other type of matter, can not be measured in the laboratory. At the same time, there are other theories that can tell me what exactly is dark matter. Search for candidates for the dark matter particles are currently engaged in the majority of modern particle accelerators. If these particles have a weight on the scale TeV they found BAK.

However, to verify that this is indeed the required capabilities ILC. International Linear Collider will be able to measure their mass, spin and parity with extreme precision. The obtained results allow to calculate the exact amount of dark matter in space and compare the figure with the forecasted value. If the forward and the obtained values ​​match – it will be a great victory in particle physics and cosmology, and will open their eyes to how the universe evolved after the Big Bang .
As the ILC will complement the LHC

LHC and ILC provides a very different environment for the study of particles. Interaction of high-energy protons at the LHC is achieved through the interaction of the components of the proton – quarks and gluons. At the same time, the ILC will study the interaction of the electron beam and the opposite particles – positrons. Electrons and positrons are elementary particles, and their internal structure is unknown. Linear colliders can explore more simple elementary processes without the influence of complex “background” processes inherent to the LHC. As a result, a more accurate value. BAC provides the ability to search for new particles and studying the properties of the currently known particles. ILC, in turn, can provide more accurate information about their properties. At ILC has the potential to reveal new details and particles that are invisible to the LHC.
What is the role of supersymmetry and ILC in its study

Supersymmetry theory states that all currently known particles have a heavier superpartners – new particles that create a new dimension of the subatomic world. The particles, superpartners of ordinary particles are very heavy compared to conventional particles. The lightest superpartner is a likely candidate for dark matter and may shed light on the structure of the cosmos.

Linear Collider is the ideal “factory” for the production of super light. Experiments on the linear collider can be focused on one type of superpartner, measuring its properties accurately enough to detect the symmetry of supersymmetry and identify the nature of supersymmetric dark matter.

Thus, physicists could figure out exactly how supersymmetry and shed light on the structure of the universe. ILC is the perfect device to search for dark matter particles with unprecedented accuracy. There is reason to wait and other discoveries on the way.
Extra spatial dimensions


There are many theories, such as string theory, which are trying to unite gravity with the other forces in the universe, which suggests the existence of other additional measurements, not just space and time. Such theories suggest additional spatial dimensions at each point of space.

Additional measurements should be very small or somehow remain invisible, because none of the experiments did not confirm the reality of their existence. The matter may be composed of particles that are “live” in the extra dimensions and amenable to their influence. The particles moving in the extra dimensions may vary with extra energy, which makes them look like a heavier version of himself.

Measurement of the mass and other properties of these “tools” can be shown that are more measurements. If there are new dimensions to the TeV energy scale, the LHC will be able to find them, in the course of experiments, the researchers will be looking for high-energy collisions, in which particles are literally disappear into other dimensions. At the same time, the ILC will tell about the structure of the measurement data and the associated particles, which can not be found BAK.
International Linear Collider – the future of particle physics


With the discovery of the Higgs boson at the ILC there was a full program aimed at conquering new peaks in particle physics. If the Higgs boson is indeed a scalar particle, it adds a whole new dimension to the well-established understanding of matter as something that exists in space-time.

International Linear Collider and its detectors will allow to accurately determine the properties of the Higgs boson. In truth, the ILC capabilities go far beyond the Higgs boson. Due to the displaced center of gravity in the future ILC can run a program on the study of Z-bosons, detailed study of the top quark and the Higgs boson self-interaction at the highest value of the energy in the center of mass. Moreover, it can make measurements that disagree with any theoretical predictions, thus giving rise to new theories and communication. John Freeman Dyson once said:

“New directions in science are born thanks to new tools more often than by new concepts. The concept only explains the old things in new ways. The new tool, in turn, opens your eyes to new things that will be explained. ILC is such a tool. ”

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Tags: Higgs boson , Large Hadron Collider , the universe , the International Linear Collider , Dark Matter .

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