Fiction | it possible to transfer information faster than the speed of light?




Fiction | it possible to transfer information faster than the speed of light?


One of the principles of the special theory of relativity is: nothing can travel faster than light in a vacuum. speed of light is a universal speed limit only , and it is widely accepted by the scientific community. However, science is such a thing that if someone set a firm rule, there is always someone else who tries to deny it or at least find a loophole. The speed of light is no exception.

Light travels in vacuo at about 299 792 km / s. In September 2011, physicists working on the OPERA (Oscillation Project with Emulsion-tRacking Apparatus, an experiment to study neutrino oscillations), have caused quite a stir in the scientific community when it was announced that the experiment showed that subatomic particles called neutrinos have gone from CERN to Italian Gran Sasso National Laboratory on 60 nanoseconds faster than a beam of light. The brains of scientists boil, inventing various theories of how this all possible. However, it came down to an error, one of the cables had been lost, and all the results have been refuted. Rewrite Einstein’s theory was not necessary.

Other researchers are trying to circumvent the rules, not break them. For example, the idea of ​​a flexible space-time has all the chances to make it possible to travel in space faster than the speed of light. The bottom line is that space-time will be compressed before ship and expanded behind it, while the ship itself will remain stationary in the warp bubble. This idea was first formulated Mexican physicist Miguel Alcubierre in 1994, but it took him a lot of negative energy (in the universal scale) to the experiment was possible. Later, the amount of energy was reduced to the size of the planet, and later did to the size of the probe. Mathematically, the theory is based on the laws of relativity theory, therefore, the experiment does not violate the rules. However, the technology is not yet allow you to implement such a project. That does not prevent Harold White of NASA to develop your own warp drive .

Space travel – it’s just one of the possible uses of the superluminal speed. We would, for example, wanted to look at the planet Gliese 581g and see how it develops local life (if it exists). However, the star Gliese is 20 light-years away, which means even the speed of light to fly to her 20 years.

Some scientists want to transfer data faster than the speed of light. Is this possible? Let’s take a look.
Can the information be transmitted at the speed of light?


Currently, most of the data passes through a copper wire or fiber optic cable. Even when we send information from your phone via radio waves, which is moving at the speed of light, it will still at some point passes through the wire. The two most common types of copper wires to transmit information for a long distance – it’s twisted pair and coaxial cable. Coaxial cable is faster of the two. But all of them faster fiber. At that time, as a copper wire transmits data in the form of electrical signals, fiber optic cable moves information as pulses of light.

It is important to note “in a vacuum”, which we mentioned at the beginning. Light travels over fiber is not as fast as in a vacuum. Passing through any medium as we know it, the light moves more slowly than the “ideal” conditions, which said constant. The air is not really interfere with the light, but the glass – is essential. The refractive index of the medium in the world is the speed of light in a vacuum divided by the speed of light in the medium. To this glass component is 1.5, however if you divide the velocity of light (300,000 km / sec approximately) 1.5, then get 200 000 km / c – the approximate speed of light passing through the glass. A fiber made of plastic which has a greater refraction index, and hence the speed of downward.

One reason for the rate reduction is the dual nature of light. It has characteristics of both particle and wave. Yes, the light consists of photons, but they do not move along a straight line passing through the cable. And since the photons collide with the molecules of the material, they move in different directions. Refraction of light absorption of the medium and eventually leads to loss of energy and data. It is because the signal can not move indefinitely, and it must constantly reinforce for transmission over long distances. It is worth noting that the slowdown in the world – it’s only a little bit of bad news. In fiber optic cable are sometimes added impurities which control the speed of light and allow the broadcast signal more efficient.

Fiber optic cable, of course, much faster data transfers than the copper wire, and not subject to electromagnetic interference. Fiber can achieve transmission speeds of several hundred Gbit / s or even Tb / s. Home Internet connection does not show such a speed, if only because the wiring is different everywhere. Even if you have a fiber, possibly on a section of the data is a piece of copper. But even with such a fiber optic information will come to you at a speed of 50-100 Mb / c, what better than 1-6 MB / s with DSL-lines. The connection speed also depends on the location, ISP and your service plan.

There are other things that cause the delay of the signal (called the delay – «Delay”), when you try to go to the page on the web, or playing an online game. Your computer and the server that stores the data and reported the data to be synchronized and transmitted efficiently, and this is what causes the delay. Also important is the distance, which are data, and in some places may be “narrow pass” which detain them more. The system works so quickly, how fast is the slowest of its components.

Scientists are working on the system data over the air. Imagine a Wi-Fi-bulbs or Wi-Fi-spraying, which we used to have , or even laser beams from building to building. But still, the light can move through the air at speeds close to the speed of light in a vacuum, but no more. How to get around this limitation?
The possibility of superluminal speed data transfer


Scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) claim to have been able to transfer quantum information faster than light, thanks to the so-called four wave mixing, which, in fact, is a manifestation of a form of interference in the optical fiber. The experiment consists of sending a short 200-nanosecond pulse through a heated rubidium vapor and simultaneous transmission of the second beam of rays at a different frequency, which is to strengthen the first pulse. Photons from both beams interact with the vapor and give birth to a third beam. The results show that the third beam moves faster than the speed of light in vacuo. Approximately 50-90 nanoseconds faster. Scientists claim that the speed of the pulse can be calibrated by changing the input parameters.

Alternatively FTL transmission – a quantum teleportation one paradox of quantum mechanics , which is based on entangled pairs: two particles entangled with each other, will have the same characteristics, regardless of how far you planted blocked. It also requires a third particle, which will contain the data that you need to pass. The laser can teleport, literally, one of the particles anywhere. It’s not like passing the photon is likely to replace the original copy of a single photon. This photon can be compared with a third particle for finding matches and differences, and this information may already be used to compare the two particles. Sounds like an instant transfer of data, but not quite. The laser beam can only move with the velocity of light. However, it can be used to transmit encrypted data to a satellite, as well as for the creation of quantum computers, if we do the same to get them. This technology has gone much further than any other attempts to transmit information faster than the speed of light. To date, it is only to a limited extent, and scientists are constantly working to increase the distance of the teleport.

The answer to the question of whether the significant information to move faster than light, yet. Now we can move only a few particles, which is good, because in the future may lead us to the desired goal. In practice, you need to pass the organized bits of information that means something and not damaged, to another machine that can read them. Otherwise, the world’s fastest data transfer will not cost a penny. But you can be sure that if scientists still exceed the threshold of the speed of light, your internet will work faster. Much faster than begin interstellar travel.
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