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Fiction ,The entropy increases with passage of time or create it?
Today we return to the thermodynamics. Let’s try to understand why chaos is so important, and if he could explain the riddle, how time works. Usually we talk about cosmology, relativity, quantum mechanics, particle physics and the other, but what’s wrong with that for a moment to dive into the 19th century into the arms of an old-fashioned law of thermodynamics? Thermodynamics is not so bad: it helped make the industrial revolution and will ultimately be responsible for the death of the universe. She deserves your respect.
The question is as follows:
“Let’s entropy – a measure of the disorder of objects. But what’s so important that it should be the law? ‘.
If you look at almost all the laws of physics, time will flow almost too late. Make a movie out of a collision of two electrons, and then run the film in reverse order, and the second version will look just fine physically and reliably as the first option. At the microscopic level, it seems almost symmetrical. Because, as we wrote at this level does not work familiar to us thermodynamics.
At the macroscopic level is quite different. Do you remember the future, for example, can not glue the egg or share a cocktail on the components. And speaking of the possibility of time travel, we mean only one arrow of time, a single vector in one direction: forward.
There is one common denominator that distinguishes the future from the past: all confused. You know it as the “second law of thermodynamics.” Or do not know. I do not care.
The second law states literally that everything is falling apart, or that things are getting more and more chaotic and disorderly over time, but this is not the case. Rightly so: the total entropy of a closed system increases with time. Entropy is a measure of the number of ways that you can turn things upside down and save all the macroscopic quantities unchanged.
Very school example
On the example of all will become clear. Let’s say you have three molecules of air, and you put them on the left side of the box. This is a very neat way to organize things. Let nature do its thing – and the molecules scatter in different directions, and each of them will hold half their time on the right side of the box, and the other half – the left side.
At any given time, you will see the occasional picture of three molecules. There are eight different ways to organize molecules, but only two of them (LLL, PPP) will place all three molecules in one of the container. It’s only a 25% chance. The rest of the atoms is likely to be uniformly distributed. And even distribution – is a higher state of entropy than concentrated.
You can play the same game, gaining full palm coins and tossing them into the air. Heads and Tails – this is the right and left side of the box, and vice versa. Do the gesture several times and see that the molecule is almost always evenly distributed.
Larger numbers make the probability of the law
If you increase the number of air molecules, for example, 26 or 10 above, suggests the probability that the random movement of molecules eventually distribute “uniformly”. Due to quantum mechanics, randomness is the principal component of all of this. That is because there is a technical possibility that all the molecules in the air suddenly leave your bedroom while you sleep for a few minutes, this is clearly not something to be afraid of the night.
The increasing entropy – in fact, the law, as in the universe are so many particles that the probability that they all line up spontaneously in a state of low entropy, embarrassingly low. The same type of accident is working against gambling and weather forecasting.
Well, or another example. You will fall tails twice in a row and you do not wonder that. But if someone falls tails hundred times in a row, it becomes suspicious. To estimate the scale of such an event, imagine if you toss a coin 10 times per second, it will take time, a trillion times more than the current age of the universe, before you live to see the result. Roughly speaking, at some point, the system becomes so large that the chance of that entropy will decrease, not just small, but very close to zero. That is why we call it the “second law”.
Creationists among you can use this as evidence that complex things (such as humans or dinosaurs) could never have been formed. In the end, you’re highly ordered people not assume. If you are a cloud of gas, please accept my apology. But assuming that you are a man, there is nothing strange in the fact that you exist as a small chance of a high order.
The essence of the rule is that the entropy increases in the universe. For example, if you make a cute fridge full of cold air, you do so at the expense of high-entropy hot air. That is why the air conditioning needs in the exhaust and heater – no. For the same reason you can not build a perpetual motion machine. Some of the energy is always converted into heat.
Entropy increases continuously with time. You sit in a hot tub in a cool room feel warm and cozy, but then events begin to take a menacing turn: water in the room temperature approaches the air, you get cold, you attack creeps.
The same applies to the future of the universe. Over time, the heat is evenly distributed in the universe. stars burn out, black holes evaporate, will be dark and cold. Boom.
The time and the second law
Physicists are constantly arguing on the subject of whether the second law of thermodynamics vice versa. In other words, if a period of time determined by the increase of entropy in the universe? Sean Carroll has written a very interesting book on the subject. Stephen Hawking famously linked the “psychological time”, the way we remember things from the “entropy of time.” In other words, if the reverse flow of entropy, time will flow in the opposite direction.
One of the reasons why all these ideas are gaining momentum, is the mystery of the observer. The young universe, apparently, was in a state of high order, but there is no fundamental reason why this should be so. The universe, created shortly after the Big Bang would have to be in a state of total chaos, but instead it was an incredibly orderly. The gravitational system of high entropy curled up into lumps (performing stars, galaxies and black holes), but the universe was smooth. Why?
Others go even further. Erik Verlinde, for example, argues that such phenomena as gravity flow from the second law of thermodynamics (and string theory). It is worth noting that a lot of interesting ideas. Many people say that time makes the entropy increase, but generates entropy time. For some, the entropy is just something that happens.
Or should occur with high probability.
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Tags: time , universe , thermodynamics , entropy .
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