If there is something that we can definitely say about the future is the fact that some excellent scientific and technological achievements, futurists predicted today , did not become a reality. Anyway, do not keep within a predictable timeframe. In 1932, a prominent political leader of Great Britain, Winston Churchill, who had access to the best development of the country, predicted that within 50 years the engine capacity of 600 liters. s. be able to work a few hours from the fuel tank the size of a pen, Iceland will be the tropics, the robots will have human consciousness, and people will eat artificial chicken grown in the laboratory.

Needless to say, that the forecasts of the British leader did not materialize. In fairness, Churchill guessed a few things: he predicted the emergence of cellphones and technologies similar to Skype, as if someone “could not connect with anyone and to take part in a conversation is as easy as if stuck his head out the window.”

Visionaries of today have learned from the missteps of Churchill and more cautiously predict the future. For example, a theoretical physicist Michio Kaku , author and futurist, in its projections based on scientific discoveries – in the field of quantum physics, DNA and others – and those prototypes that have been developed in laboratories.

Nevertheless, futurists can still be removed from the imagination of incredible vision of scientific and technical progress in the future – from computers, which are superior to the intellect , to factories that use molecular assembly to recreate any object, what you want. Here are five such predictions.

Computers will be smarter than us

Inventor and futurist Ray Kurzweil has changed our world, finding out how computers can read printed words, to recognize human speech and synthesize music, which does not differ from established musicians playing real violin and cello. But this is minor compared to what he sees in the future – when the machines will be able to think like humans and even better.

In an essay in 2005, “Singularity next” Kurzweil predicted that by 2045, the “non-biological intelligence will match in size and intricacies of the human.” From this point on, which futurologist called “singularity”, the machine will be able to surpass human intelligence. Not only increasing computer power and speed information processing machines make this about what we could only dream, but also scientific research itself in understanding the functions of the human mind will allow us to create mathematical models that simulate the human mind.

But do not worry about that smart computers wanted to destroy humanity, as in the popular sci-fi movies. More likely, according to Kurzweil, the tiny and intelligent nanobots will penetrate into our bodies, improve our abilities. Man of the future will no longer depend solely on the wrinkled gray matter in the brain. We will become part biological, part machine beings.

We will be able to print out hard copies of organs for transplantation

One of the most interesting achievements of the future of science seems 3D-biopechat – use of 3D-printers modified to sequentially create objects such as cells, tissues or organs of living. Scientists can already print individual parts – skin, spinal discs, ears and even the circulatory system – but the experiments are carried out exclusively on animals, and it will take at least another ten years before we get rid of infinite deficiency of the liver, kidneys, hearts for transplantation.

The biggest problem, as the researchers note, is not the creation of the body, and duplication of complex internal network of blood vessels that nourish the body the necessary nutrients and oxygen. But there is some progress. Some people think that if the governments help in scientific research in this area, it completely replaces the print media will be available for the past 10 years.

Once this is achieved, it will be even more interesting. How to write a pioneer biopechati Vladimir Mironov, “as soon as you can print a functioning organ man would be possible biopechat whole person – it’s just a logical extension.”

Food will be collected molecule by molecule

If you think that 3D-biopechat – it’s weird, you probably completely dumbfounded by another, more innovative concept: the reproduction of the object or create a new molecule by molecule. Molecular manufacturing could revolutionize our world, allowing us to create a machine or even buildings cheaply and quickly, in accordance with the exact specifications and virtually free of defects.

Physical principles that lie behind the production of molecular unbearably difficult, but if simple, is supposed to create the workforce of the dozens of tiny robots – collectors – which will direct chemical reactions and connect a few atoms at a time, to create a molecule that will become the building material of the object. We can literally control the very “structure of matter,” as Neil Dzheykobshteyn, head of the Institute for Molecular Manufacturing.

If molecular manufacturing will be practical, it can radically alter the global balance of economic power to erase the advantage that there are developing countries with cheap labor in favor of technology innovators.

We will be able to go into space on the elevator
Космический лифт

We are accustomed to the idea of ​​space travel as to what requires more powerful rockets, complex spacecraft technologies takeoff and landing, which together are worth a lot of money for each run and require incredible technical precision. Would not it be easier if we could get on the elevator and slowly but surely go into space, as the top of a skyscraper.

This is a magical machine will allow us to return to Earth without having to experience the overload and the problems associated with re-entering the Earth’s atmosphere. Sounds a little crazy. But the idea of ​​a space elevator, voiced by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, who was inspired by the Eiffel Tower in 1895, many years.

Over time, this idea was hopelessly impractical because, according to Newton’s law of motion, the voltage across such a long cable is more than can withstand very high-strength steel. But with the advent of ultra-strong carbon nanotubes are 180 times stronger than steel, the idea got a second life. However, while we can create a thread of carbon nanotubes, which is much less than 62 000 kilometers needed for a space elevator. But futurists suggest that the space elevator will be available by 2100, and perhaps earlier .

We will live in floating cities

Back in 2007, the report of the Paris Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development showed that by 2070 sea level rise due to climate change could have a devastating impact on coastal cities around the world. 150 million people may be at risk and to escape from the flooded towns. We could have prevented this catastrophic scenario, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, but time is short, and no one wants to move. This means that people will have no choice but to build a high dam or move.

There is another option. In 2008, the Belgian architect Vincent Callebaut offered an alternative. What if, instead of escape from sea-level rise, just to build new cities, which will float? In 2008, the design presented Callebaut Lilypad, a floating city of 50 000 people with a fully self-sustaining system, water gardens, sea water desalination plant and the production of energy using solar, wind and water energy.

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