As our devices become more and more tied to the Internet, and we are gradually moving away from the paradigm of personal computers, supercomputers are fewer and fewer seem to us bulky and crazy devices with thousands of cooling boxes and orderly heap of processors. But the giant parallel systems – which are similar to those same old supercomputers – are still being developed.

Most of us know what Moore’s law , which in essence says that the power of computer chips doubles every year or two. This applies not only to our computers and smartphones. All our electronic products are on the path of improvement: processing speed increases, the sensitivity of the sensors, memory, and even the pixels of the screen or the camera gets better and better. The chips can be improved and reduced to unimaginable limits, while quantum effects begin to make dissonance. Some experts believe that over the next 50 years, Moore’s law is still limited and slow the development of computer chips. Not surprisingly, the largest chip makers now begin to look for an alternative .

Our phones and tablets for a long time may surprise us doubles every two years capacity, but behind the scenes there are things that require more – the “cloud”, supercomputers, the smallest computing systems. Let’s try to imagine which way to go supercomputers of the future and how it will affect the total computing power of our planet.

Ekzaflops continue

Miniaturization of chip components – is only half the battle. On the other side of the coin, supercomputers need a special assembly for greater power. In 2008, the IBM Roadrunner overcome the limit of one petaflops: one quadrillion operations per second. (Flops means “the number of floating-point operations per second” and is a standard that we use in speaking of supercomputers used for scientific calculations).

In scientific notation petaflops measured in 10 ^ 15 operations per second. Ekzaflopsny computer – which will appear in 2019, according to various forecasts – will have a capacity of 10 to 18, a thousand times more than petaflopsnye computers that we see today. For comparison, the most powerful of the 500 fastest supercomputers in the world as of 2014 “Tianhe-1A” has a capacity of less than 60 petaflops. By 2030, supercomputers have to collect performance zettaflops, or 10 ^ 21 operations per second, and then yottaflops, or 10 ^ 24.

What do these numbers really mean? It is assumed that the full computer simulation of the brain would be possible by 2025, and zettaflopsovye computers can accurately predict the weather for the entire planet for two weeks.

Green supercomputers

At any power has its price. If the cooler your computer ever breaks or you’re sitting with a laptop on your lap, you know what it takes to power: the computers are heated during operation. In fact, one of the main problems linked to the development of supercomputers finding a reasonable way to install and use powerful machines without crashing or damage to the planet. In the end, one of the main purposes of modeling the weather conditions will be directed to controlling emissions of carbon monoxide, so that would not be very wise to allow climatologists to problems in the process of solving these problems.

The computer is running very poorly, if overheated. Any computer system is useful in so far as it is in its worst days, so the cooling of hot chips is a major concern for engineers. More than half of the energy used supercomputers out on cooling. And environmental issues are already causing serious concern in light of increasing computer performance. Green solutions and energy efficiency have long been the basis of each project supercomputer.

Chilling “free air” – that is, engineers are trying to bring the outside air to the system – to the hardware structures that increase the surface area of ​​the system, scientists are trying to be as innovative in order to improve the cooling efficiency of supercomputers. One of the most interesting ideas that are trying to implement is a liquid cooling system that will collect heat as the flow through the pipes in the system. Projects that are in the top 500 most powerful supercomputers, take it very seriously.

Addressing problems of ecology and efficiency is not only beneficial for our planet, but also necessary for the operation of machines. Perhaps this is not the most interesting item on our list, so let’s move on.

Artificial brain
Искусственный интеллект

Let’s talk about what should happen in the period between 2025 and 2030, when supercomputers will be able to map the human brain. In 1996, a scientist from Syracuse University estimated that our brains have memory from 1 to 10 terabytes, an average of about 3 Of course, it is extremely relevant to note that our brains do not work like computers. But over the next 20 years, computers have to earn as much as our brains.

In the same way as supercomputers are extremely useful in mapping the human genome, the health problems and in the other, the exact model of the human brain greatly facilitate the diagnosis, treatment and understanding of the complexities of human thought and emotion. In conjunction with the rendering technology, doctors will be able to identify problem areas, to simulate various forms of treatment and even get to the root of many problems that plagued us since time began. Implantable chips and grafting, and other technology to help monitor and even change the level of serotonin and other neurotransmitters to improve mood and overall emotional state, and incorrect operation of certain parts of the brain in the process of injury, and all can be eradicated.

In addition to success in medicine, which we promise to supercomputers, there is also the issue of artificial intelligence. Already, the average performance computers can learn some of the features of artificial intelligence including intelligent system lists the recommendations of books and television programs – at the least. Imagine online doctor who will be able to replace the real doctor and even a council of the best doctors in the world.

Weather systems and complex models

By the year 2030, is expected to zettaflopnye supercomputers can accurately simulate the entire weather system of the Earth in two weeks. We mean 100 percent accurate model of our planet and the ecosphere, with local and global forecasts available at the touch of a button. If you do not talk about obviously useful things – predictions of natural disasters, for example – imagine that your vacation or wedding will not be spoiled by the weather as you will know it for a few weeks in advance.

Earth’s climate – as a complex system that is often discussed in connection with the theory of chaos, complexity, which some of us even can not imagine. The question of whether the stroke of a butterfly’s wing in Brazil set off a tornado in Texas, will cease to exist. In short, it is difficult to imagine a more complex system of large-scale, rather than the weather of our planet.

Manufacture of food and agriculture, the impact of weather on other large-scale research projects (polar expedition or launch spacecraft), the prediction of natural disasters – it is only a few saving options that will offer us the computing power.

And of course, the weather system – it’s just the tip of the iceberg. If you can imagine the ideal weather conditions, you just simply can recreate any complex and large system.

Imitation World

Most of us are familiar with online games and can remember when life simulator type Second Life or The Sims were all the rage. Virtual reality has always been a favorite subject of science fiction. But if you multiply it by the possibility of supercomputers, games and virtual environment can become more than just entertainment.

Although the development of the sort of “Matrix” will certainly be impressive, carrying our everyday cultural and social change in order to observe them and the prediction can be extremely useful for our unstable society. Imagine how simplified urban planning, building new areas, the uneven distribution of food and resources.

Supercomputers are not reading tea leaves: they will receive information from all possible sources – from the latest tweets in the top to use the power grid at the moment – and create a model that will help to regulate not only the current factors, but future plans. Shortage of gas, electricity, water, systematic use of these resources and energy supply large-scale events like the Olympics will cease to disturb people.

With wireless internet, which captured the country and the world, a qualitative model of our world at one point, will not be different from the world in which we live. Only now are we beginning to implement all of these features, which would not be available without supercomputers.


In: Technology & Gadgets Asked By: [15575 Red Star Level]

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