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Found the oldest fossilized organisms
U.S. and Australian researchers found the most ancient objects of biological origin. They are fossilized bacterial mats (biotic communities) under the age of 3.5 billion years. The finds made in the western part of Australia, and its structure reminiscent of modern bacterial mats.
Discovered by experts in Geobiology, formed by a layer of micro-organisms in the earth has an age of about 3.48 billion years, which is much more similar to previous findings, which suggest that life on the planet appeared no later than the level of 3.2 billion years ago.
Area in Western Australia, where researchers work, geological formation dresser, was formerly known as the place with the most ancient sedimentary rocks. Even older rocks of volcanic origin exclusively.
In addition to the layers left behind by bacteria, scientists have discovered a number of other structures. In an article for the journal Astrobiology researchers described the film covering the stones, petrified bubbles of gas and multilayer deposits. As has been done chemical analysis of the samples, which, like the method of comparison with modern bacterial mats that proves the origin of biological discovery.
A sample was passed beam with a specific wavelength, which upon contact with the analyte is scattered. This spectral analysis performed by Raman spektoskopii, the samples revealed the presence of carbon and hydrogen in amounts that eliminate abiogenic (the emergence of life from non-living matter interaction) the origin of the structures.
Researchers believe that geothermal sources, operating 3.5 billion years ago, could resemble similar sources on Mars. For this reason, scientists say, the discovery is interesting in the context of examining not only the Earth’s past, but also the geological history of the red planet.
In paleontology under the definition of bacterial mats formed by microbes commonly understood as the thick layers on the surface of the rock, and such structures often have multiple layers. At the top of her settle aerobic organisms (organisms whose existence requires oxygen), and below, where access is limited to oxygen, anaerobic bacteria living (organisms that receive energy in the absence of oxygen through the substrate phosphorylation). More simple and thin layers are called biofilm, biofilm (microbial plurality arranged on a surface, the cells are attached to each other) are formed not only on the inorganic object, but may also be formed by pathogenic microbes in the human body.
According to the materials
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Tags: Bacteria , Life , Microbes .
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