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How do atomic clocks?
When the light turns off suddenly and later appears as you learn how the clock is necessary to expose? Yes, I’m talking about electronic watches that are sure many of us have. You ever thought about how time is regulated? In this article we will learn all about atomic clocks and how they make the world tick.
Whether radioactive atomic clocks?
Atomic clock is better than any other hours. They show the time better than the earth’s rotation and movement of the stars. Without atomic clocks GPS-navigation would be impossible Internet would not be synchronized, and the position of the planets would not be known with sufficient accuracy for space probes and devices.
Atomic clocks are not radioactive. They do not rely on atomic decay. Moreover, they have a spring, as in conventional hours. The biggest difference from standard atomic clock that fluctuations in atomic clocks occur in the nucleus of an atom between the surrounding electrons. These fluctuations are hardly a parallel in the balance wheel to wind-up clock, but both types of oscillations can be used to keep track of time passing. The oscillation frequency is determined by the mass of the atom inside the nucleus, gravity and electrostatic “spring” between the positive charge of the nucleus and the electron cloud around it.
What types of atomic clocks we know?
Today there are various types of atomic clock, but they are built on the same principles. The main difference is related to the element and detecting changes in the energy level. Among the different types of atomic clocks are the following:
Cesium atomic clocks that use beams of cesium atoms. Watch separated cesium atoms with different energy levels of the magnetic field.
Hydrogen atomic clocks maintained the hydrogen atoms on the desired energy level in the container, whose walls are made of special material, so the atoms do not lose the high-energy state too quickly.
Rubidium atomic clocks, the simplest and most compact of all, use a glass cell with rubidium gas.
The most accurate atomic clocks today use cesium atom and the usual magnetic field detectors. Furthermore, the cesium atoms are constrained by laser beams, which reduces the small changes in frequency due to the Doppler effect.
How do atomic clocks based on cesium?
Atoms have characteristic oscillation frequency. The familiar example of the frequency – this orange glow of sodium salt, if thrown into the fire. We have a lot of atoms of different frequencies, some in the radio, some in the visible spectrum, and some between the two. Cesium-133 is most often chosen for atomic clocks.
To cause resonance of cesium atoms in atomic clocks, it is necessary to accurately measure one of the transitions or resonant frequency. Usually this is done by blocking the crystal oscillator is basically a microwave resonance of the cesium atom. This signal is in the microwave range of the radio spectrum and has the same frequency as the direct broadcast satellite signals. Engineers know how to build equipment for this region of the spectrum in detail.
To create a clock Cs is first heated so that the evaporated atoms and pass through the pipe with a high vacuum. First, they pass through a magnetic field, which selects atoms with the necessary energy state, then they go through an intense microwave field. Frequency microwave energy jumps back and forth in a narrow range of frequencies, so that at some point it reaches the frequency of 9,192,631,770 hertz (Hz, or cycles per second). The range of the microwave generator is already close to that frequency because it produces accurate crystal oscillator. When the cesium atom receives microwave energy of the desired frequency, it changes its energy state.
At the end of the tube another magnetic field separates the atoms that have changed their energy state, if the microwave field was desired frequency. The detector at the end of the tube provides an output signal proportional to the number of cesium atoms, in which a fall and reaches a peak when the microwave frequency is sufficiently accurate. This peak signal required for adjustment to cause the crystal oscillator, and hence the microwave field to the desired frequency. This locked frequency is then divided by 9,192,631,770 to give all the familiar one pulse per second, the desired real world.
When invented the atomic clock?
In 1945, a physics professor at Columbia University Isidor Rabi suggested a watch that can be done on the basis of technology developed in the 1930s. It was called the atomic beam magnetic resonance. By 1949, National Bureau of Standards announced the creation of the world’s first atomic clock based on the ammonia molecule, whose variations and reads, and by 1952 – has created the world’s first atomic clocks based on cesium atoms, NBS-1.
In 1955, the National Physical Laboratory in England built the first clock based on the cesium beam as a source calibration. Over the next decade to create better watch. In 1967, during the 13th General Conference on Weights and Measures has been determined based on the SI second vibration in the cesium atom. In the world of timekeeping system was not precisely defined than that. NBS-4, the most stable in the world cesium clock was completed in 1968 and used until 1990.
In 1999, NBS, renamed NIST, began working with the clock NIST-F1, the accuracy of which the MPE for one second in 20 million years.
As measured by atomic time?
Right frequency for resonance particles of cesium today determined by international agreement and is 9,192,631,770 hertz, so by dividing the output signal of this number must be obtained 1 Hz, or 1 cycle per second.
Atomic clocks have improved the accuracy of measurement of time is a million times compared to the astronomical methods. To date, the most accurate atomic chronometer lose one second in five billion years.
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Tags: Atoms , Physics , Watches .
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