Is it possible to time travel




# Fiction | Is it possible to time travel? March 10, 2013

Since the days of Queen Victoria to the present day concept of time travel haunt the minds of science fiction fans. What it is – to travel through the fourth dimension? Most interesting is that for time travel does not need a time machine or something like a “wormhole.”

You’ve probably noticed that we always move in time. Moving through it. At a basic level, the concept of time – is the rate of change of the universe, and whether we like it or not, we are subject to constant change. Age, the planets move around the sun, things break down.

We measure the passage of time in seconds, minutes, hours and years, but that does not mean that time is flowing at a constant rate. As water in the river, time is different in different places. In short, time is relative.

But what causes temporal fluctuations on the way from the cradle to the grave? It all comes down to the relationship between time and space. A person is able to perceive in three dimensions – length, width and depth. Same time adds to the game as the most important fourth dimension. Time does not exist without space, the space does not exist outside of time. And the two of them joined in the space-time continuum. Any event that occurs in the universe, should involve time and space.

In this article, we consider the most real and daily travel opportunities through time in our universe, as well as less accessible, but not least, the possible path through the fourth dimension.
Time travel to the future


Train – a real time machine.

If you want to live a couple of years, a little bit faster than someone else, you need to handle the space-time. Global positioning satellites make it every day, overtaking the natural course of time into three billionths of a second. In orbit, time flows more quickly because the satellites are far away from the mass of Earth. And on the surface of the planet’s mass drags the time and slows it down to a relatively small scale.

This effect is called gravitational time dilation. According to Einstein’s general relativity, gravity bends space-time, and astronomers use a consequence, when studying light passing near massive objects (the gravitational lensing, we wrote here and here ).

But what does this have to do with time? Remember – any event that happens in the universe involves both space and time. Gravity pulls not only space but also time.

Being in the flow of time, you hardly notice the change in its speed. But enough of massive objects – such as a supermassive black hole Sagittarius Alpha, located in the center of our galaxy – will seriously distort the fabric of time. Its mass is the point of singularity – 4 million suns. This mass slows down time in half. Five years in orbit the black hole (without falling into it) – that’s ten years on Earth.

Travel speed also plays an important role in the rate of flow of our time. The closer you get to the maximum speed – the speed of light – the slower time passes. Hours in a fast-moving train to the end of the trip will “late” one billionth of a second. If the train reaches a speed of 99.999% of the light in one year on a train you can step back for two hundred twenty-three years in the future.

In fact, are based on this idea of ​​a hypothetical journey into the future in the future, pardon the tautology. But what about the past? Is it possible to turn back time?
Time travel to the past

Путешествие во времени

Stars – remnants of the past.

We found that the journey into the future happens all the time. Scientists have proven this experimentally, and this idea is at the core of the theory of relativity. In the future it is possible to move around, the question is only “how fast?” With regard to travel back in time, then the answer to this question we need to look at the night sky.

Width of the Milky Way galaxy about 100 000 years, which means that the light from distant stars to overcome thousands of years before it reaches Earth. Catch the light, and in fact, you just have a look past. When astronomers measure the cosmic microwave radiation, they stare at the cosmos as it was 10 billion years ago. But is that all?

In the theory of relativity there is nothing that would rule out the possibility of traveling to the past, but the possible existence of a button, which could get you back into yesterday, breaking the law of causality, or cause and effect. When something happens in the universe, the event generates a new infinite chain of events. Cause always comes before the investigation. Just imagine a world where the victim would die before the bullet hit her in the head. It is a violation of reality, but in spite of this, many scientists do not rule out the possibility of travel to the past.

For example, it is believed that the move faster than the speed of light can be sent back to the past. If time slows down as the object approaches the speed of light, that can overcome this barrier will turn back the clock? Of course, when approaching the speed of light increases and the relativistic mass of the object, that is, approaches infinity. Accelerate infinite mass is impossible. Theoretically, warp speed, that is, the deformation rate, as such, can fool a universal law, but even that will require huge amount of energy.

What if time travel to the future and the past do not depend much on our basic knowledge of the cosmos, and more from the existing space phenomena? Let’s look at a black hole.
Black holes and the Ring of Kerry

Кольца Керра

What is on the other side of the black hole?

Wander around a black hole for a long time and the gravitational time dilation throw you in the future. But what if you please right in the mouth of this cosmic monster? That will be immersed into a black hole, we have mentioned, but did not mention such an exotic variety of black holes, like the Ring of Kerry. Or Kerr black hole.

In 1963, New Zealand mathematician Roy Kerr proposed the first realistic theory of a rotating black hole. The concept involves neutron stars – the massive size of the collapsing star, St. Petersburg, for example, but with the mass of the Earth Sun. Neutron hole we have included a list of the most mysterious objects in the universe , calling them magnetars. Kerr suggested that if a dying star collapses into a rotating ring of neutron stars, their centrifugal force will not allow them to turn into a singularity. And because of the black hole is not the point of singularity, Kerr found that it is possible to get in without fear of broken gravity in the center.

If Kerr black holes exist, we could go through them and get into a white hole. It’s like the exhaust pipe of a black hole. Instead suck everything that is possible, a white hole is, on the contrary, throw everything you can. Perhaps even in another time or another universe.

Kerr black hole remains a theory, but if they do exist, they are kind of portals offering one-way trip to the future or the past. Although highly advanced civilization could develop in such a way and move in time, no one knows when the “wild” Kerr black hole disappears.
Wormholes (wormhole)

Путешествие во времени

Curvature of space-time.

Theoretical Ring of Kerry is not the only possible way to “decline” the ways of the past or the future. In science fiction movies – from “Star Trek” to “Donnie Darko” – often considered the theoretical Einstein-Rosen bridge. You over these bridges are known as wormholes.

Einstein’s general relativity allows for the existence of wormholes, because the basis of the theory of the great physics is the curvature of space-time, under the influence of the mass. To understand this curvature, imagine the fabric of space-time as a white sheet of paper and fold it in half. Leaf area will remain the same, he is not deformed, but that the distance between the two points of contact will be clearly lower than when the sheet lying on a flat surface.

In this simplified example, the space depicted as a two-dimensional plane, and not four, which actually is (remember the fourth dimension – time.) Similarly, work and hypothetical wormholes.

Fast forward into space. Concentration of mass in two different parts of the universe could create a kind of tunnel in space-time. In theory, this tunnel would connect the two different segments of space-time continuum between them. Of course, it is possible that some physical or quantum properties do not offer the wormhole to emerge on their own. Well, or they are born and then die, being unstable.

According to Stephen Hawking, the ten most interesting facts of life that we will have recently presented , wormholes might exist in the quantum foam – the smallest among the universe. Tiny tunnels are created and constantly torn by linking separate places and time for short moments.

Wormholes may be too small and short to move the man, but suddenly one day we will be able to find them, hold, stabilize and increase? Provided, as the Hawking, that you are ready for feedback. If we want to artificially stabilize the tunnel of space-time, the radiation from our actions can destroy it as reverse sound can damage the speaker.
Cosmic strings

Космические струны

We are trying to squeeze through the black holes and wormholes, but maybe there is another way to travel through time with a theoretical cosmic phenomenon? With these thoughts, we turn to the physicist J. Richard Gott, who introduced the idea of ​​a cosmic string in 1991. As the name suggests, this is a hypothetical objects that may have formed in the early stages of the universe.

These strings permeate the universe, being thinner than an atom and are under intense pressure. Naturally, it follows that they give the gravitational attraction to all that is around them, so the objects are attached to a cosmic string could travel back in time with incredible speed. If you pull two cosmic strings close to each other or one of them placed next to the black hole, you can create what is called a closed time-like curve.

Using gravity, produced by the two cosmic strings (or string and the black hole), the spacecraft could theoretically send yourself back in time. To do so would be to make a loop around the cosmic strings.

By the way, quantum strings is very hotly debated. Gott said that to travel back in time to make a loop around the string that contains half the mass-energy of an entire galaxy. In other words, half of the atoms in the galaxy would have to use as fuel for your time machine. Well, as we all know, you can not go back in time before the car itself was created.

In addition, there are temporal paradoxes.
The paradoxes of time travel

Путешествие во времени

Grandfather killed – killed himself.

As we said, the idea of ​​traveling back in time a bit overshadowed the second part of the law of causality. Reason to be a consequence, at least in our universe, and therefore can ruin even the best laid plans of time travel.

For a start, imagine, if you go back over 200 years, you will appear well before the birth. Think about it a second. For some time, the effect (you) will be a first cause (your birth).

To better understand what we are dealing with, we consider the well-known paradox of his grandfather. You – a killer who travels in time vshaa goal – your own grandfather. You penetrate through the nearest wormhole and come to a live version of the 18-year-old father of your father. You pick up a gun, but what happens when you press the trigger?

Think about it. You were not born yet. Even your father was not even born. If you kill my grandfather, he will not have a son. This son will never give birth to you, and you can not go back in time, carrying a bloody problem. And your absence does not press the trigger, thus negating the whole chain of events. We call this the loop inconsistent reasons.

On the other hand, one can consider the idea of ​​a consistent causal loop. It is, though, and makes us think, in theory, eliminates the time paradoxes. According to physicist Paul Davies, such a loop is as follows: math professor went to the future and steals complex mathematical theorem. After that gives her the most brilliant student. After this promising student grows and learns in order to one day become a man, who once stole Professor theorem.

In addition, there is another model of time travel, which includes the likelihood of distortion at the approach to the possibility of paradoxical events. What does this mean? Let’s go back into the skin of your deushki killer. This model of time travel can kill your grandfather virtually. You can pull the trigger, but the gun did not work. Bird chirp at the right time, or something else happens: the quantum fluctuations do not give a paradoxical situation happen.

Finally, the most interesting. Future or the past, in which you go, simply can exist in a parallel universe. Imagine this as the paradox of separation. You can destroy anything, but on the little world of your home is not affected. You kill my grandfather, but do not disappear – will disappear, perhaps another “you” in a parallel world, well, or the script will follow the patterns we already discussed the paradox. However, it is possible that such a journey in time will be a one-off and you can never go home.

Quite confused? Welcome to the world of time travel.

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Tags: Future , Time , Past, Time Travel



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