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Large Hadron Collider from the inside
“You are too much involved in the search for the Higgs boson.” That was the warning to Peter Higgs CERN. English theoretical physicist who is widely regarded as the father of the scalar particle, disappointed that the main purpose of the LHC is to find the Higgs boson. Now that the existence of the Higgs boson few who doubt there is a great risk that the majority of the collider will be just an expensive toy, the life cycle is coming to an end.
In order to prevent the spread of the errors need to diversify the study. For example, a step far ahead in research on the development of the World Wide Web, which was created by the British scholar Timothy John Berners-Lee and a group of other scientists as a way out of the situation in the absence of a free room for the joint project.
CERN Director of Public Affairs James Giles said that the interest for the CERN research are laws that form the foundation of the modern science of the universe. 27-kilometer LHC, which is a ring-shaped structure made of vacuum tubes, steel structure, surrounded by a network of eight superconducting magnets, and three of four major subsidiary detectors, multiple cooling systems, and devices for reading data is often referred to as “the fastest track on the the earth. ”
According to Mr. Giles, magnets, cryogenic cooling system can accelerate beams of protons to hydrogen speed 11,000 rounds per second (99.99 percent of the speed of light ). By colliding beams of protons moving in opposite directions, generated a huge amount of energy, which is measured CERN scientists in search of new knowledge about the universe. The Higgs boson is only a small part of a quest, dedicated to understanding the structure of the universe and the nature of man.
Since February of this year, the LHC is in sleep mode. He will resume the proton-proton collisions at high energy in 2015 and will run continuously for three years. Recall that it has yet to shed light on the disturbing minds of scientists dark matter and dark energy. How could look inside the LHC?
And administrative buildings for CERN experiments are located near the Jura mountain range in Switzerland and France. Most employees CERN cross the border between Switzerland and France several times a day. Enough to take the tram number 18 from Geneva, who can safely take you to the reception.
When you exit the tram meets most of the large dome called the “Globe of Science and Innovation.” He greets visitors and informs the research being conducted at CERN. It should be noted that the ball is entirely composed of wood.
The house at number 33, which is located in the visitor center, on the floor is a kaleidoscope called “Cosmic Songs”. It was designed by French sculptor Serge Moreau in 1986. Color and intensity vary depending on the interaction of cosmic rays with the Earth’s atmosphere.
Obsolete particle detectors have been redesigned, and on their basis the composition in the style of a retro-modern art.
CERN was founded in 1954, and the establishment here of such classic designs from the mid-20th century, it took a lot of time.
Within the walls of the corridor World Wide Web was born.
Near the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), one of the two big department of elementary particle detectors, idle a lot of heavy lifting equipment. It is worth noting that there are no plans to move CMS not, all maintenance work carried out on the spot.
Cooling media, compressed air and injected into all necessary compact muon solenoid these massive tubes.
CMS control room due to the suspension of the collider at the moment is no different from the cabinet seller of securities. The room is a plant monitoring and process vast amounts of information. Empty bottle of champagne in the far corner of the celebration reminiscent of past discoveries.
The minimum number of employees, which remains in the control room to monitor the power supply, cooling and gases. Switzerland can not fully provide the LHC with the necessary power, so as to feed the Swiss and French sources of energy. At the LHC also has its own diesel power for emergency cases.
Most of the equipment is turned off, but around the site there are a few included detectors and switches.
CERN official colors are orange and blue. The blue helmets expect visitors Station ALICE.
Once on the site, can be killed by electrocution, exposure to radiation, or poisoned by fumes. Meeting with each piece of equipment that is here in large quantities, can be fatal.
When the LHC is up and running in normal mode, the main task of computing CERN team is tracking and recording the results of 600 million proton collisions per second. That’s why every station with detectors equipped with multiple servers, cables, connectors, switches and knobs.
Before us is a reduced model of a multi-storey particle detector CMS.
Fundamentals of safety or as a guide for the five steps to become a superhero in a mask.
Safety of LHC first. Retinal scanners and other measures in place, and only authorized personnel can gain access to the detector and the LHC tunnel.
In the image is CMS detector in person. Pipe through which millions of protons per second, for the moment rest, as does the collider, and their diameter is only 1 m It was created in order to understand what is going on in the collision of high-energy beams.
Located at a depth of 100 m below ground Compact Muon Solenoid weighs 12,500 tons, and its dimensions are – 15 x 25 m (length x height).
The sheer size of the CMS detector will help visitors to feel like a grain of sand in the ocean.
The tunnels between the stations of the detector are less exciting, but keeping them in working order is critical. BAC still remains the most expensive project of its kind, but its construction engineers have managed to save a little money by using re-ring tunnel that was dug for the Large Electron-Positron Collider.
Proton beams travel in opposite directions inside the two related but separate pipes. As soon as they get closer to the detector station, their paths cross and they face. Unused protons are just breaking on the concrete wall.
Inside the tunnel workers BAK move almost the same as the outside. However, the transportation here is more interesting.
It should be noted that the height of the LHC tunnel above the sea level actually varies. These dispersions are explained surrounding soil type.
Radioactive cans, duct tape and an abundance of foil.
Here you can leave your mark.
Station ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) – one of six experimental units that were built at the LHC at CERN. “Alice” has a less powerful magnets that can be cooled with ordinary water.
ALICE dimensions are 26 x 16 x 16 m (length x height x width), weight – 10 000 t
Looking at the detectors, which include a huge number of different cables, could not help recall the various sci-fi movies.
When the LHC running, huge red door at the back of the ALICE closed.
If you can manage to look away from ALICE, you will notice the familiar pipes that are on the ground level.
Currently ALICE detector and the other three are on the upgrade and return to work only in 2015.
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Tags: Large Hadron Collider , the universe , dark matter , dark energy .
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