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Physics beyond Standard Model: changing nature of neutrinos
Physics beyond the Standard Model: changing nature of neutrinos
The particles are neutrinos, which are indirectly mentioned in the article ” Top 10 strangest things in the universe , “There are three types, or, as they say in the close circle of physicists flavors: electron neutrinos, muon neutrinos and tau neutrinos. Back in 1958, the Italian physicist Bruno Pontecorvo noticed that no principle, the law of conservation of lepton number, does not prohibit one type of neutrino spontaneously transform into other types of neutrinos. Perhaps this is the case, if the particle is a quantum-mechanical “mixture” of other particles. In other words, any of neutrinos can be composed of three others.
Since then, especially in acute need of experimental confirmation of the changing nature of the neutrino. Scientists at the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN conducted a series of experiments. Produced by proton supersinhrotronom (SPS) in the laboratory near Geneva, the muon neutrino beam was directed to the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS). The distance between the labs of 730 km. Currently, scientists have for the third time to officially confirm the conversion of neutrinos in the experiment OPERA (Oscillation Project with Emulsion-tRacking Apparatus). To determine the tau neutrinos emerging from the muon neutrino oscillations, Detectors OPERA. First show the changing nature of neutrinos yet succeeded in 2010, and the second experiment confirmed case conversion was recorded in 2012.
In the Standard Model of particle physics are taken massless neutrinos. Due to the fact that scientists have been able to prove the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations, the standard model needs to be expanded. It should be noted that back in 1969 an American physicist Murray Gell-Mann, the Nobel Prize, has shed light on the changing nature of the neutrino.
“Observation third transformation of tau neutrinos is an important proof of the previous two cases. This also supports the theory that the path from the Sun to the Earth neutrinos do not disappear, but simply change form, so their number is less than expected ”
– Said Professor Giovanni De Lellis, project OPERA. Researchers plan to continue research for at least the next two years.
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Tags: Neutrinos , standard model , physics , elementary particles .
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