Protons collide with high energy in the LHC




Nearly a hundred meters underground in Switzerland and France shoot beams of protons Wednesday for the first stable and with nearly the speed of light through the 27-kilometer long Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The protons are colliding with an energy of 13TeV.

Initially there were some problems with the injectors Wednesday of the protons and stability, making the first collisions at half past nine but not to place anything after ten to eleven. In recent weeks also shot already bundles by the LHC, but they were meant to set and calibrate off all the equipment for these high energy beams, where Tweakers already been paid attention to.

The importance of the correct adjustment and obtaining stable bundles is large. From the moment that the beams were stable, the different detectors could start with the data-gathering. Unstable beams can damage the equipment, which must wait first for stable bundles.

A bundle does not consist of a constant stream of particles, but different from “bunches” at a time of about ten centimeters long. The magnets in the tunnel maintain the bundle in check and ensure that the beam is as small as possible, about one millimeter to a millimeter. Today there were only two six bunches in the LHC each containing about 100 billion protons. Eventually, that number increased to 2808 pieces per beam, which the LHC will produce up to 1 billion collisions per second. This seems very little to do with 100 billion protons per train, but the space between the protons is huge.

The goal is the current second run to make up to three years to run further study of the standard model, and the Higgs boson, which was demonstrated in the first run. The first run started with 3,5TeV per bundle and eventually came to 4TeV per bundle from early 2012. The scientists also hope to explain new physics phenomena beyond the Standard Model or explore. The LHC should last for at least another twenty years, with a planned upgrade to be completed in 2022: the beams are then made ​​more compact than the LHC called the High Luminosity LHC , with more powerful magnetic fields.


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