Quantum physics has moved in the direction of the Big Bang




Modern physics can not describe what happened during the Big Bang. Not to mention the fact that it was up to him . Quantum theory and the theory of relativity can not describe what happened in this infinitely dense and infinitely hot primordial state of the universe. Only a comprehensive theory of quantum gravity, which brings together these two fundamental bases of physical theory, can tell where it all began.

Scientists from the Institute for Gravitational Physics, Max Planck made an important discovery in the field. According to their theory, the space is made ​​up of tiny “building blocks.” Taking this as a starting point, scientists came to one of the most fundamental cosmological equations – Friedman equation, which describes the universe. This suggests that quantum mechanics and relativity theory can indeed be combined.

For nearly a century, two major theories of physics co-existed, but were in conflict : while the general theory of relativity describes gravity, and hence the world in general, quantum physics describes the world of atoms and elementary particles. Both theories work well within the defined boundaries of their own, but break down under extreme points at very small distances (the Planck length). Space and time, it turns out, does not matter in black holes and the Big Bang in the first place.

Daniel ICU of the Albert Einstein Institution uses a liquid to illustrate this situation:

“We can describe the behavior of the flowing water of the old proven theory of hydrodynamics. But if we shrink to atomic dimensions, it will stop working. We will need quantum physics “- just as the liquid is made of atoms, Orito thinks that the space needs to be built up of tiny atoms of space, and a new theory, which is to describe them – quantum gravity.

Not surprising – previously we wrote that thermodynamics does not work on the quantum scale.

Continuous space is divided into elementary cells

According to Einstein’s theory of relativity, space is a continuum. Orit divides the space into cells and applies the principles of quantum physics to them, to space and to the theory of relativity, which describes it. The idea of ​​unification is that.

The fundamental problem of all approaches to quantum gravity is to overcome the vastness of space to the dimensions of the atoms of the universe. But here the ICU and his colleagues Lorenzo sheets and Steven Zhiden managed. Their approach is the so-called theory of the group field. It is closely related to loop quantum gravity theory, which involved scientists.

Now the task before them is to describe the space of the universe in the unit cells. But as the hydrodynamics of flowing water can be applied to atomic theory?

This is extremely complicated mathematical problem has led to an unexpected success.

“Based on specific assumptions, the space consists of building blocks and evolves as an expanding universe” – explains the ICU. – “The first time we were able to derive an equation of Friedman directly from our complete theory of the structure of space.”

This is the fundamental equation describing the expanding universe was developed by Russian mathematician Alexander Friedmann in 1920 on the basis of the general theory of relativity. Scientists have succeeded in closing the gap between the microcosm and the macrocosm, and thus between kvantmehom and general relativity: they showed that the space appears as a condensation of the unit cells and evolving into the universe, which is very similar to ours.

Quantum gravity can answer questions about the Big Bang

ICU and his colleagues see themselves in the beginning of a difficult but promising path. Their current solution is valid only for a homogeneous universe, but our real world is much more complicated. It contains irregularities, such as planets, stars and galaxies. Physicists are currently working on integrating them into his theory.

And they set their sights on a very serious thing. On the one hand, they want to investigate the possibility of describing the space during the Big Bang. Several years ago, Martin Bohovald found that the simplified version of loop quantum gravity is possible to trace the evolution of space and time back to the Big Bang. This theory have adopted the ICU and fellow scientist.

If all goes well, the researchers will try to explain the alleged inflationary expansion of the universe just after the Big Bang, and the nature of the mysterious dark energy that causes the universe to expand at an accelerating rate.

All scholars agree on one thing: to understand the evolution of the universe will be truly possible only when there is a theory of quantum gravity. But her search for a hundred years.
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Tags: big bang , the universe , quantum mechanics , general relativity .


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