Stephen Hawking proposed a theory to refute the classical black holes




Black holes have long attracted the attention of physicists and astronomers, because they are the gravitational effects that can not be observed on the Earth. The main element in the study of black holes is the concept of “Event Horizon” – a closed surface bounding the region around the black hole within which the gravitational force is so great that no particles can not get out of this surface.

However, the assumption that the gravity of the black hole does not allow the escape of any particle is incompatible with quantum physics, as in the classical theory of a black hole there is no escape, and quantum theory allows the energy to get out of the black hole.

Nevertheless, in 2012, physicist Joe Polchinski (Joe Polchinski) and his colleagues at the Institute for Theoretical Physics in Santa Barbara had a thought experiment , which arose as a result of the so-called paradox of fire walls, or “paradox firewall» (firewall paradox). The experiment is to find out what would happen to an astronaut who falls into a black hole .

Classical theory says astronaut crosses unwittingly “event horizon” and is in a state of free fall, after which it begins to suck inside, stretching in a long “spaghetti”, closer to the center of a black hole – the point of singularity.

However, after this experiment Polchinski discovered a completely different scenario. Quantum theory makes the “event horizon” in the high-energy zone – “wall of fire”, and anyone who falls on this wall, burn without reaching a singularity.

Many physicists disagreed with the “paradox of fire wall”, as it contradict Einstein’s general relativity. According to this theory, the astronaut must obey the same laws of physics, as in free fall, and near a black hole. In addition, the “event horizon” must be given abroad, and thus can no longer be a wall.

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Stephen Hawking has posted an article on the website, in which he offers a third, very simple option that does not contradict any theory of relativity or quantum mechanics. The essence of his idea is that the “event horizon” and “fire wall” simply does not exist in the form in which it was assumed earlier, as quantum effects that occur near the black hole, causing very strong spatial and temporal variations due to which can not exist any sharp edges.

Along with the concept of “event horizon” Hawking introduces an alternative concept of “apparent horizon” – blurred boundary that constrains the rays of light, trying to leave the black hole. But in the theory of relativity, these two phenomena can not be separated, as both phenomenon hinders the light inside the black hole.

Nevertheless, Hawking believes that these two phenomena are to be divided, as if a black hole absorbs a large amount of matter, its “event horizon” will grow more than the “visible horizon.” However, black holes can spew so-called Hawking radiation, while cutting, which means “event horizon” becomes less “visible horizon.”

Hawking’s new theory raises several questions. First, by its very nature “apparent horizon” may disappear, and all accumulated black hole matter and energy will be released in open space, although not in the form, which has been absorbed.

Second, the lack of “event horizon” casts doubt on the existence of a singularity at the center of a black hole. If the assumptions are correct Hawking, the matter inside a black hole is only temporarily, moving slowly towards the center of the black hole under the influence of gravity, but it will never be compressed into an infinitely dense singularity. This preserves the notion of “event horizon” from which matter can escape, though in a modified form.

This theory Hawking tries to combine two contradictory theories: classical theory of black holes and the theory of quantum physics. Although, as stated by the scientist himself, it will not be easy, as it requires to unite gravity with the other forces of nature, and this is even scientists do not succeed.
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Tags: Singularity , Stephen Hawking , Black Holes .

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