What are the operating system?




What are the operating system?

When you turn on your computer, the first thing I expect when the RAM operating system to load. And then you turn to the necessary applications. Most of all, what the user is doing with his computer, performed by the operating system. It should be seen as a control center computer. Most of today’s personal computers running operating systems Microsoft Windows. Mac delivered with a pre-installed OS X, which until recently was called Mac OS X. Many corporate servers managed by the operating systems Linux and UNIX.

Nowadays operating system is located not only in computers, but also in many other electronic devices. And modern mobile phones and wireless access points are also working with the operating systems, though somewhat different than the computer. What to say: modern phone more powerful desktop computer of the century.

The overall objective of the operating system is the organization of the hardware and software of the computer and the control over them. This provides flexibility and predictability of digital devices. Today we will talk about the operating system, so the computer. It should be remembered that both the laptop and a smartphone, and tablet computers are also at the core. Consequently, although the principles of operating systems, these devices can, of course, differ in detail, but basically mimic those that are typical for any PC, no matter how huge or, alternatively, it may be miniaturized.
What is an Operating System?

Операционные системы

Not every computer has an operating system. For example, a computer that controls the microwave oven in your kitchen, the operating system denied. The fact that this computer has to deal with only one set of tasks defined by the settings of time, temperature and operating conditions. And perhaps a few preset modes. “The flexibility of mind” of a computer is not required and the operating system only increase the cost of development and production of the kitchen unit. PC microwave for all its uncomplicated tasks only need one program that is implemented in hardware.

But there are other devices that the operating system gives several important capabilities:

Allows you to perform various tasks
Provides user interaction with the device at a more sophisticated level
Maintained changes made by the user

Operating systems have all desktop computers. The most common operating systems Windows, developed by Microsoft Corporation. Apple pre-installed on their own computers operating system, which was discussed above. In addition, there is a huge family of UNIX-systems. The history of their development is full of outstanding individuals, corporations and innovative examples of cooperation to achieve the common goal. In the world there are hundreds of different operating systems oriented to perform highly specialized tasks. These include operating systems for mainframe computers (mainframes), robots, industrial equipment and real-time systems.

Each device having an operating system generally allows for changes in the process. And this does not need to be interchanged chip. User software gives commands, which are then reported by the hardware of the device, how to behave in different conditions.

For desktop users, this means an opportunity to put security updates, system patches, add-on applications, and even change the operating system. A computer, however, remains the same. In other words, you can change the behavior of your computer without changing anything in its hardware components. The same goes for today’s mobile phones. Regardless of which device is running, it will take control over each task performed by it and its governance system resources.
The functions of the operating system

If you strongly simplify the description of the tasks performed by the operating system, we can distinguish two main ones:

It manages the hardware and software system resources. If we talk about a typical desktop computer, these resources include, inter alia: the CPU, memory, disk space. If we talk about the mobile phone, then here is added to the keyboard (or touch screen), address book, dial system, battery, and a network connection
It provides a stable and consistent applications to interact with the hardware. The application may not be familiar with the detailed characteristics of the hardware

The first task, managing the hardware and software resources, it is extremely important. The fact that the various programs and input methods compete for the attention of the central processing unit (CPU, CPU, CPU), the principles of which we have already been contacted . They need memory, storage space, and bandwidth input and output. The operating system plays the role of a good mentor, arranging things so that each application receives the resources it requires, and it does not come into conflict with other applications. The operating system allocates the limited resources of the computer so that the result for all users and all applications received is well. Of course, possible in this configuration. The computer has a well-defined CPU performance and memory size, capacity of which – as we already know – does not always lead to an increase in productivity of the machine. Operating system to be the most profitable way to distribute these and other resources.

The second task, ensuring the interaction of hardware and software, takes on particular importance in view of the fact that modern computers are open to making changes in their configuration. Means the application programming interface (application program interface, API) allows the developer to write a program on one computer and with almost no doubt that it will work on another computer of the same type. Even if the memory or storage capacity for the two machines are different from each other.

The operating system arranges things so that the application to continue to run on the computer even after it is modified hardware or software upgrades are made. The fact that it is the operating system rather than each specific application monitors the hardware and the distribution of its resources. Before the developers of operating systems is a difficult task: to make the system compatible with equipment from thousands of companies producing computer components and peripherals. A modern operating system is able to “know” a thousand different printers, hard drives and special peripherals. Furthermore, in each case, the equipment will be combined differently.
Types of operating systems

All the myriad of existing operating systems can be divided into four basic types:

Real-time operating systems (Real-time operating system, RTOS). Real-time operating systems are designed to control machinery, scientific instruments and industrial systems. Typically, the user interface of these systems does not indulge design refinements, and utilities, user-centric, no. It is ready to use “closed box”. The most important task of this type of operating system is to ensure that a certain operation is performed in a certain period of time. These segments were equal. In complex machines should not be allowed to have their items moved faster than necessary, because the system has “extra” resources. Or, conversely, did not move at all because of the employment system
Single-user single-tasking operating system (Single-user, single task). As their name implies, these operating systems are geared to a user of a problem at one time. A striking example of this type is for Palm OS handhelds Palm. These devices use a certain popularity before the mass distribution of smart phones
Single-user multi-tasking operating systems (Single-user, multi-tasking). Systems of this type of control most of today’s desktop and laptop computers. And Microsoft Windows, and Apple OS X are of this type. For example, a Windows user can simultaneously write a note in a text editor and load the file from the Internet. At the same time, the printer can print and receive e-mail client correspondence
Multi-user operating systems (Multi-user). Multi-user operating systems allow multiple users to access the device resources. The operating system has to strike a balance between the requirements that have different users. In this case, the operating system has to ensure that each of the existing programs have the resources, and the problem to be solved by one user does not interfere with other users. As a vivid example of multi-user systems can result in Unix, VMS and Windows operating systems for mainframe, similar to MVS

It is important to clarify some of the subtleties that can make it difficult to determine the type of operating system. There are multi-user operating systems, and systems that support network connections. And it is a variety of operating systems. For example, Windows 2000 and Novell Netware support hundreds or even thousands of network connections. In this case, they can not be regarded as truly multi-user. The only real Windows 2000 and Netware is the system administrator. Network support and all the deleted user accounts are included in the overall plan of the operating system, software-defined by the administrator.
Computer operating systems

Операционные системы

When you turn off the computer, the first to run the program is a set of instructions contained in a computer’s permanent memory (RAM, ROM). The code tests the system hardware, and make sure that everything is working correctly. This process is called self-test at startup (POST, power-on self test). In the course of its checks the CPU, memory, and basic input / output system (BIOS, BIOS) for errors. Test results are stored in a special memory area. If the self test is successful, run housed in permanent memory software. It is known by the name of BIOS. This software starts activating the hard drive of your computer. In most modern computers, when activated hard drive is the first piece of the operating system: the boot loader (bootstrap loader).

The bootloader is a small program that has only one function: to load into memory the operating system. This will begin the work. In general, the loader runs a small software drivers that communicate with various hardware subsystems and control them. All this is in the same memory which contains the operating system itself, and user information application. In motion is a data structure containing a large number of signals, indicators, and syncs that enable interaction within and between sub-systems and computer applications. Then the control of the computer goes to the operating system.

At the same time, we put a comma, because we still have to talk about what the group performs the tasks of a typical operating system. But this will be the subject of another story.

To be continued …

According to the materials computer.howstuffworks.com
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