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What makes our galaxy to fly at high speed?
What makes our galaxy to fly at high speed?
Norma cluster – the nearest massive cluster of galaxies to the Milky Way – is located about 220 million light-years from Earth. It focuses a huge mass, and hence the gravitational pull. Astronomers call it the Great Attractor, and it dominates in the region of the universe.
In the image below, made telescope “Hubble”, showing a lot of stars that are hiding countless galaxies in the background. Being on the border with South Triangle and Norma, this field covers a part of the cluster Standards (Abell 3627) and some of our own galaxy, the Milky Way.
The largest spiral galaxy, which can be seen in this picture, it ESO 137-002. We see a big dusty regions across the bulge of the galaxy. What we do not see – is growing a tail of X-rays that are there, but not visible to optical telescopes such as “Hubble”.
Watch the Great Attractor is difficult in the optical range. The plane of the Milky Way – is responsible for the many bright stars in the image – as dwarfs (in the case of the stars) and hides (dust), many of the objects behind him. There are several ways to look at infrared and radio watch, but the area behind the center of the Milky Way, where the thickest layer of dust, remains a mystery to astronomers.
Recent data from the telescopes of the European Space Agency in the Atacama desert in Chile came into conflict with the theory of the “Great Attractor.” Astronomers have for years assumed that something unknown is pulling our Milky Way and other galaxies tens of thousands to their breakneck speed of 22 million miles per hour. However, they could not determine exactly what it is or where it is located.
Again. A huge chunk of space that includes the Milky Way and superclusters of galaxies is flowing towards the mysterious, giant, invisible mass, which astronomers call the Great Attractor, and which is 250 million light years from our solar system.
Andromeda Galaxy and the Milky Way – is the dominant structure of the galaxy cluster so-called “local group”, which, in turn, is part of the Virgo supercluster. Andromeda – located 2.2 million light-years from the Milky Way – our galaxy is rushing at a speed of 350,000 kilometers per hour.
This movement can be attributed to the gravitational attraction, even if the masses that we see, is not sufficient to provide such cravings. The only thing that could explain the movement of Andromeda – is the gravitational pull of an invisible mass, perhaps the equivalent of ten galaxies the size of the Milky Way, which is located between the two galaxies.
Meanwhile, our local group is racing toward the center of the Virgo cluster (Virgo Cluster) at a speed of 150 million miles per hour.
The Milky Way and Andromeda neighbor, along with 30 smaller galaxies, as well as thousands of galaxies of Virgo, all attracted by the Great Attractor. Given the speed at such a scale unseen mass, occupying the void between galaxies and clusters of galaxies to at least ten times the visible matter.
Even so, adding this invisible material to the visible material and received an average mass of the universe, we get only 10-30% of the critical density, which is necessary in order to “close” the universe. This phenomenon suggests that the universe is “open.” Cosmologists continue to debate on the subject in the same way as trying to find out the nature of the missing mass , or “dark matter.”
It is believed that dark matter determines the structure of the universe on a large scale. Dark matter interacts gravitationally with normal matter and this is what allows astronomers to observe the formation of long thin walls supergalactic clusters.
Recent measurements (with the help of telescopes and space probes) of the distribution of mass in M31, the largest galaxy in the vicinity of the Milky Way and other galaxies led to the recognition that galaxies are filled with dark matter, and showed that the mysterious force – dark energy – fills the vacuum of empty space, accelerating expansion of the universe.
Astronomers now know that the ultimate fate of the universe is inextricably linked to the presence of dark energy and dark matter. The current standard model of cosmology assumes that the universe 70% dark energy, 25% dark matter, and only 5% of normal matter.
We do not know what dark energy is and why it exists. On the other hand, the particle theory suggests that at the microscopic level even ideal quantum particles vacuum bubbles which are naturally dark energy source. But elementary calculations show that the dark energy that is produced from a vacuum is set at 10 120 times greater than that which we observe. Some unknown physical processes should eliminate most, but not all, of the vacuum energy, leaving enough to accelerate the expansion of the universe.
A new theory of elementary particles would have to explain this physical process. New theories of “dark attractors” hide behind the so-called Copernican principle, which says that there is nothing surprising in the fact that we, the observers, we assume that the universe is homogeneous. These alternative theories explain the observed accelerated expansion of the universe without dark energy, and instead suggest that we are near the center of the void, followed by a hearty “dark” attractor draws us to himself.
In a paper published in Physical Review Letters, Pengzhi Zhang of the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory and Albert Stebbins on display Fermilab have shown that the popular model of emptiness and many others may well replace dark energy, without entering into conflict with the observation telescopes.
Polls show that the universe is homogeneous, at least on the scale to gigaparseka. Zhang and Stebbins argued that if large-scale irregularities exist, they should be identified as the temperature shift in the cosmic microwave background relic photons generated after 400,000 years after the Big Bang. This is due to the electron-photon scattering (inverse Compton).
Focusing on models void “bubble Hubble” Scientists have shown that in such a scenario, some of the universe will expand more rapidly than the other, whereby the temperature shift would be greater than expected. But telescopes studying the cosmic microwave background radiation, do not see such a big shift.
Well, as Carl Sagan said, “extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence.”
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